Diabetes, which is at the forefront of diseases of the age, is a disease that plays a leading role in the formation of many deadly diseases and is very common all over the world. Diabetes Mellitus, the full name of the disease, means sugary urine in Greek. Fasting blood glucose level in healthy individuals is in the range of 70-100 mg / dL. If the blood sugar level exceeds this range, it usually indicates diabetes. The cause of the disease is insufficient or absent insulin hormone production for any reason, or the body tissues become insensitive to insulin. The most common type of diabetes, which has many different types, is Type 35 diabetes, which usually occurs in individuals over the age of 40-2. In Type 2 diabetes, which is also called insulin resistance, although insulin production is sufficient in the pancreas, insensitivity to this hormone develops due to the insulin hormone-sensing receptors in the cells not working. In this case, blood sugar cannot be transported to tissues by insulin and blood glucose level rises above normal. This situation manifests itself with symptoms such as dry mouth, weight loss, drinking too much water and eating too much. What is Diabetes? What are the symptoms of Diabetes (Diabetes)? What are the causes of diabetes (diabetes)? What are the types of diabetes (Diabetes)? How is diabetes (Diabetes) diagnosed? What are the treatment methods of Diabetes (Diabetes)?
It is very important to fully comply with the treatment principles in Type 2 diabetes, which is the primary cause of many different important diseases. High blood sugar for a long time; Since it causes permanent damage to the whole body, especially the cardiovascular system, kidneys and eyes, individuals diagnosed with diabetes should immediately receive diabetes education and fully comply with the diet program deemed appropriate by the dietician.
What is Diabetes (Diabetes)?
Diabetes Mellitus, which is generally referred to as diabetes mellitus, is the increase of glucose (sugar) level in the blood above normal, and accordingly, sugar in the urine, which should not contain sugar normally. Diabetes, which has different derivatives, is among the most common diseases in our country and in the world. According to the statistical data provided by the International Diabetes Federation, one out of every 11 adults has diabetes, and 6 individual dies every 1 seconds due to diabetes-related problems.
What are the symptoms of Diabetes (Diabetes)?
Diabetes disease manifests itself with three basic symptoms in individuals. These can be listed as eating more than normal and feeling unsatisfied, frequent urination, dryness and sweetness in the mouth and the desire to drink excessive water accordingly. Apart from this, other diabetes symptoms that can be seen in people can be listed as follows:
- Feeling weak and tired
- Rapid and involuntary weight loss
- Blurred vision
- Discomfort in the form of numbness and tingling in the feet
- Wounds heal later than normal
- Dry and itchy skin
- Acetone-like odor in the mouth
What are the causes of diabetes (diabetes)?
As a result of many studies on the causes of diabetes, it has been concluded that genetic and environmental causes play a role together in diabetes. The factors that cause the disease in diabetes, which are basically two types as Type 1 Diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes, differ according to these types. Among the causes of Type 1 Diabetes, high rates of genetic factors play a role, but viruses that damage the pancreatic organ that produce insulin hormone, which is involved in the regulation of blood sugar, and malfunctions in the functioning of the body defense system are also among the factors that cause the disease. In addition, among the causes of Type 2 diabetes, which is the more common type of diabetes, can be listed as follows:
- Obesity (overweight)
- Having a diabetes history in the parents
- Advanced age
- Sedentary lifestyle
- Gestational diabetes during pregnancy and giving birth to a baby with a higher than normal birth weight
What are the types of Diabetes (Diabetes)?
Diabetes The types of disease are listed as follows:
- Type 1 Diabetes (Insulin-dependent diabetes): A type of diabetes disease that usually occurs in childhood, due to insufficient or no insulin production in the pancreas, and where external insulin intake is mandatory.
- Type 2 Diabetes: The type of diabetes disease seen as a result of the desensitization of the cells to the insulin hormone that regulates blood sugar.
- Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA): Type 1 diabetes-like insulin dependent diabetes disease caused by autoimmune (self-injury due to immune system dysfunction) seen in advanced ages.
- Maturity Onset Diabetes (MODY): Type 2 diabetes-like diabetes disease seen at an early age
- Gestational Diabetes: The type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy
The pre-diabetes period, which is called latent diabetes among the public, except for the types of diabetes mentioned above, is the period when the blood sugar tends to a slight elevation without being at a high enough height to make a diagnosis of diabetes, before the formation of Type 2 diabetes, and the formation of diabetes can be prevented or slowed down with the right treatment and diet. is the name given. The two most common types of diabetes are Type 1 Diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes.
How is diabetes (Diabetes) diagnosed?
The two most basic tests used in the diagnosis of diabetes are the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT), also known as the fasting blood glucose measurement and glucose tolerance test. In healthy individuals, the fasting blood glucose level varies between 70-100 mg / Dl. A fasting blood glucose above 126 mg / Dl is sufficient for a diagnosis of diabetes. If this value is between 100-126 mg / Dl, OGTT is applied to the individual and postprandial blood glucose is investigated. The blood glucose level being above 2 mg / Dl as a result of the measurement of blood sugar 200 hours after the beginning of the meal is an indication of diabetes, which is in the range of 140-199 mg / Dl, the pre-diabetes period called secret sugar. In addition, the HbA3C test, which reflects approximately the last 1 months of blood sugar, higher than 7% indicates the diagnosis of diabetes.
What are the treatment methods of Diabetes (Diabetes)?
Diabetes treatment methods differ according to the type of disease. In type 1 diabetes, medical nutritional therapy should be applied meticulously along with insulin therapy. The diet of the patient is planned by the dietician according to the insulin dose and plan recommended by the doctor. With the carbohydrate count application where the insulin dose can be adjusted according to the amount of carbohydrate contained in the food, the life of individuals with Type 1 diabetes can be made much easier. In individuals with type 2 diabetes, treatment generally includes the use of oral antidiabetic drugs to increase the sensitivity of cells to insulin hormone or to directly increase insulin hormone secretion, as well as providing diet.
Higher levels of blood sugar in diabetes mellitus and in cases where the recommended treatment principles are not followed causes many health problems, especially neuropathy (nerve damage), nephropathy (damage to the kidneys) and retinopathy (damage to the eye retina). For this reason, if you are an individual with diabetes, do not neglect to have your regular check-ups.