History of Automobile from Invention of Automobile to Electric Automobile

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The history of the automobile begins with the use of steam as an energy source in the 19th century and continues with the use of oil in internal combustion engines. Today, studies on the production of automobiles operating with alternative energy sources have gained momentum.

Automobile has established itself as the main means of transportation in the field of human and freight transportation in developed countries since its emergence. Automotive industry II. It has been one of the most influential industries after World War II. The number of cars in the world, which was 1907 in 250.000, reached 1914 with the advent of Ford Model T in 500.000. This number rose to over 50 million just before World War II. In the thirty years after the war, the number of automobiles has increased six times and reached 1975 million in 300. Annual automobile production in the world exceeded 2007 million in 70.

The automobile was not invented by a single person, it was a combination of inventions from all over the world for nearly a century. It is estimated that the emergence of the modern automobile occurred after approximately 100.000 patents were acquired.

Automobile broke new ground in transportation and caused profound social changes, especially the relationships of individuals with space. It facilitated the development of economic and cultural relations and led to the development of massive new infrastructures such as roads, highways and parking lots. Being seen as an object of consumption, it became the foundation for a new universal culture and took its place as a must-have item for families in industrialized countries. Automobile occupies a very important place in today's daily life.

The effects of the automobile on social life zamhas been the subject of discussion at the moment. Since the 1920s, when it started to become widespread, it has been the focus of criticism because of its effects on the environment (use of non-renewable energy sources, increase in the percentage of accidental deaths, pollution) and social life (increase in individuality, obesity, change of environmental order). With its increasing use, it has become an important competitor against the use of trams and intercity trains in the city.

Faced with significant oil crises in the late 20th and early 21st century, the automobile faced with problems such as the inevitable reduction of oil, global warming and restrictions on the emissions of polluting gases across the industry. On top of these, the global financial crisis between 2007 and 2009, which deeply affected the automobile industry, was added. This crisis poses serious difficulties to major global automotive groups.

The first steps of the car

Etymology and premises

The word automobile came into Turkish from the French word automobile, which is formed by combining the Greek words αὐτός (autós, "own") and Latin mobilis ("moving"), which means a vehicle that moves itself instead of being pushed or pulled by another animal or vehicle. It was first used in Turkish literature by Ahmet Rasim in his work "City Letters" in the late 1800s.

Roger Bacon wrote in a letter to Guillaume Humbert in the 13th century that it was possible to build a vehicle moving at unimaginable speed without being towed by a horse. The first self-propelled vehicle in accordance with the lexical meaning is probably the small steam-powered vehicle made by Jesuit missionary Ferdinand Verbiest in Beijing between 1679 and 1681 as a toy for the Chinese emperor. Designed as a toy, this vehicle consisted of a steam boiler on a small stove, a wheel driven by steam, and small wheels moved by gears. Verbiest describes how this tool worked in his Astronomia Europa, written in 1668.

According to some, Leonardo da Vinci's Codex Atlanticus from the 15th century contains the first drawings of a vehicle moving without a horse. Before Da Vinci, Renaissance engineer Francesco di Giorgio Martini used a drawing roughly similar to a four-wheeled vehicle and called "automobile" in his works.

Steam age

In 1769, Frenchman Nicolas Joseph Cugnot brought the idea of ​​Ferdinand Verbiest to life, and on October 23, he started a steam boiler-powered vehicle called "fardier à vapeur" (steam freight car). This self-propelled vehicle was developed for the French Army to transport heavy guns. Approximately 4 km per hour. reaching speed, the fardier had 15 minutes of autonomy. The first vehicle without a steering wheel and brake accidentally destroyed a wall during the trial. This accident shows the strength of the vehicle, which is 7 meters long.

The Duke of Choiseul, France's then Minister of Foreign Affairs, War and Navy, was closely involved in this project, and a second model was produced in 1771. However, the Duke quits his job a year earlier than expected and does not want to deal with his successor, the fardier. The stowed vehicle was unearthed by the General Commissioner of Artillery LN Rolland in the 1800s, but it could not attract Napoleon Bonaparte's attention.

Similar vehicles have been produced in other countries besides France. Ivan Kulibin began work on a pedal-powered and steam boiler-driven vehicle in Russia in the 1780s. Completed in 1791, this three-wheeled vehicle featured the flywheel, brake, gearbox and bearings seen in modern cars. However, as with Kulibin's other inventions, the studies could not go further as the government did not see the potential market potential of this tool. American inventor Oliver Evans has invented steam engines operating with high pressure. He exhibited his ideas in 1797, but was supported by very few and died before his invention gained significance in the 19th century. Englishman Richard Trevithick exhibited the first steam-powered three-wheeled British vehicle in 1801. It travels 10 miles on the streets of London in this vehicle, called the "London Steam Carriage". The basic problems with steering and suspension and the condition of the roads cause the car to be pushed aside as a means of transport and replaced by railways. Other steam car trials include an oil-powered steam car built by Czech Josef Bozek in 1815 and a four-seater steam carriage built by the Englishman Walter Hancock in 1838.

As a result of the developments in the field of steam machines, studies on road vehicles have been started again. Although it is thought that Britain, which is a pioneer in the development of railways, will lead the development of steam road vehicles, the law that came out in 1839 and restricted the speed of steam vehicles to 10 km per hour and the red bayraklı The "Locomotive Act", which obliges a person to go, has hampered this development.

Therefore, steam cars continued to develop in France. One example of steam drive is L'Obéissante, which was introduced by Amédée Bollée in 1873 and could be considered the first real automobile. This vehicle could carry twelve people and could speed up to 40 km / h. Bollée later designed a steam-powered passenger car with four-wheel drive and directionality in 1876. Named La Mancelle, this 2,7-ton vehicle was lighter than the previous model and could easily reach over 40 km / h. These two vehicles exhibited at the World's Fair in Paris were included in the railways category.

These new vehicles, exhibited at the Paris World Fair in 1878, attracted the attention of both the public and the great industrialists. Orders started to be received from everywhere, especially from Germany, and in 1880 Bollée also established a company in Germany. Between 1880 and 1881, Bollée traveled the world from Moscow to Rome, from Syria to England and introduced its models. In 1880, a new model called La Nouvelle, with a two-speed, 15-horsepower steam engine, is launched.

In 1881, the "La Rapide" model for six persons and reaching a speed of 63 km / h was introduced to the market. Other models follow this as well, but looking at the performance to weight, the steam drive is heading towards an impasse. Although Bollée and his son Amédée experimented with an alcohol-powered engine, the internal combustion engine and petrol ultimately made themselves accepted.

As a result of improvements in engines, some engineers tried to reduce the size of the steam boiler. At the end of these works, the first steam vehicle, which was performed by Serpollet-Peugeot and considered between an automobile and a three-wheeled motorcycle, was exhibited at the 1889 World's Fair. This development has been achieved thanks to Léon Serpollet, who developed the boiler that provides "instant evaporation". Serpollet also acquired the first French driver's license with the vehicle it developed itself. This three-wheeled vehicle is considered a car, both in terms of its chassis and the style of use at that time.

Despite so many prototypes, it was necessary to wait until the breakthrough in automobile history in the 1860s was made for the car to truly find its place. This important invention is the internal combustion engine.

Internal-combustion engine

Working principle

Considered the predecessor of internal combustion engines, a mechanism consisting of a metallic cylinder with a piston inside was developed in Paris in 1673 by physicist Christiaan Huygens and his assistant Denis Papin. Based on the principle developed by the German Otto von Guericke, Huygens did not use an air pump to create a vacuum, but a combustion process obtained by heating the gunpowder. Air pressure causes the piston to return to its original position and thus creates a force.

Swiss François Isaac de Rivaz contributed to the development of the automobile towards the 1775s. Although many of the steam-powered automobiles he built did not succeed due to their lack of flexibility, on January 30, 1807, he patented a mechanism similar to an internal combustion engine he built, inspired by the operation of the "Volta gun".

Belgian engineer Étienne Lenoir in 1859 under the name "Gas and expanded air engine" zamHe patented an instant internal combustion engine and in 1860 developed the first internal combustion engine that was electrically ignited and cooled with water. [31]. This engine was originally powered by kerosene, but later Lenoir finds a carburetor that allows oil to be used instead of kerosene. Shortest zamWishing to try his new engine at the moment, Lenoir puts it in a rough car and travels from Paris to Joinville-le-Pont.

However, due to the insufficient financial resources and the efficiency of the engine, Lenoir had to end his research and sells his engine to the industrialists. Although the first American oil well was opened in 1850, an effective carburetor using oil was made by George Brayton only in 1872.

Alphonse Beau de Rochas improves Lenoir's invention, which is very poor in efficiency due to its lack of gas compression, and this problem is solved by four of the intake, compression, combustion and exhaust. zamIt overcomes it by developing a instant thermodynamic cycle. Being a theorist, Beau de Rochas cannot apply his work to real life. He patented in 1862 but could not protect due to financial difficulties, and only in 1876 the first four zamInstant internal combustion engines emerge. .Four zamAs a result of the instant cycle theory put forward by Beau de Rochas, internal combustion engines are actually being used. German Nikolaus Otto became the first engineer to apply the Beau de Rochas principle in 1872, and this cycle is now known as the "Otto cycle".

Use of

The first engine operating in accordance with the principle found by Beau de Rochas was developed by German engineer Gottlieb Daimler in 1876 on behalf of the Deutz company. In 1889, René Panhard and Émile Levassor for the first time in a four-seater vehicle zamIt installs an internal combustion engine.

Édouard Delamare-Deboutteville sets off in 1883 in his gas-powered engine, but uses gasoline instead of gas when the gas supply hose explodes during the first trial. He finds a wicked carburetor to use gasoline. Delamare-Deboutteville is not generally accepted as the "father of the car", due to the fact that this car, which set out in February 1884, was before Karl Benz's car, but did not work properly and due to explosions during short use.

Although it is difficult to say which was the first car in history, the Benz Patent Motorwagen produced by Karl Benz is generally considered to be the first car. However, there are those who consider Cugnot's "Fardier" as the first automobile. In 1891 Panhard and Levassor were driving the streets of Paris in the first French cars equipped with a Benz engine. 1877 in 4 zamGerman inventor Siegfried Marcus, who developed a car with an instant and 1 horsepower engine, remained out of the debate about the first car.

Technological innovations

“Pyréolophore” is an engine prototype developed by the Niepce Brothers in 1807. As a result of the changes made on this prototype, the Diesel engine developed by Rudolf Diesel has emerged. The "Pyréolophore" is a heat-expanding air powered engine type and is close to steam engines. However, this engine did not only use coal as a heat source. The Niepce brothers first used the spores of a plant, then they used a mixture of coal and resin with petroleum added.

In 1880, the French Fernand Forest finds the first low pressure ignition magneto. The constant-level carburetor Forest discovered in 1885 remained in production for seventy years. But Forest's place in automobile history is his work on internal combustion engines. He invented a 1888-cylinder engine in 6 and a 1891 vertical cylinder and valve-controlled engine in 4.

The fact that the car used a lot of fuel revealed the necessity of developing methods for refueling. The users carried the fuel they provided themselves from pharmacists during the journey. Norwegian John J. Tokheim, who was constantly in contact with gasoline in his workshop, was aware of the dangers of hiding this flammable liquid in a place where sparks were constantly present. He built a stockpile located outside the factory and connected to a modified water pump. The advantage of the invention is to know how much fuel is given. With the patent he received in 1901, the first gas pump appeared.

In this period, another important invention is made: Automobile tire. Brothers Édouard and André Michelin take over the "Michelin et Cie" company, which was founded by their grandfather in Clermont-Ferrand and produces bicycle brake shoes, and develop the first automobile tire. In 1895 they made the first automobile to use this invention, "L'Eclair". The tires of this vehicle were inflated to 6,5 kg and were worn at 15 km on a car traveling at an average speed of 150 km / h. The two brothers make sure that all cars will use these tires within a few years. History has justified them.

Later many more inventions emerge. The braking system and steering system are highly developed. Metal wheels are used instead of wooden wheels. Transmission axle is used instead of power transmission with chain. The spark plugs that allow the engine to run in the cold arise.

Late 19th - early 20th century

Since this period, research and technological inventions have progressed rapidly, but the same zamAt that time, car users started to face the first difficulties. Those who could own a car considered a luxury object faced bad road conditions. Being able to just start the engine was considered a challenge in itself. The automobile could not protect the driver and passengers against bad weather and dust.

The birth of auto manufacturers

Many industrialists realized the potential of this new invention, and every day a new car manufacturer was surfacing. Panhard & Levassor was founded in 1891 and started the first serial automobile production. Discovering the car using a Panhard & Levassor on April 2, 1891, Armand Peugeot founded his own company. Marius Berliet begins his studies in 1896 and with the help of his brothers, Fernand and Marcel, Louis Renault builds his first car in Billancourt. A real industry begins to be established, with many advances in automobile mechanics and performance.

When we look at the automobile production figures of the 20th century, it is seen that France takes the lead. In 1903, it had 30,204% of world production with 48,77 cars produced in France. In the same year, 11.235 cars were produced in the USA, 9.437 in England, 6.904 in Germany, 2.839 in Belgium and 1.308 in Italy. Peugeot, Renault and Panhard opened sales offices in the USA. There were 1900 automobile manufacturers in France in 30, 1910 in 57 and 1914 in 155. In the USA, there were 1898 automakers in 50 and 1908 in 291.

First races

The history of the automobile is intertwined with the history of automobile racing. In addition to being an important source of progress, races have played an important role in showing humanity that horses can now be given up. The speed requirement caused gasoline engines to outperform electric and steam vehicles. The first races were simply about endurance, such that simply participating in the race provided great prestige to both the automaker and its driver. Among the pilots participating in these races are important names in automobile history: De Dion-Bouton, Panhard, Peugeot, Benz, etc. Organized in 1894, Paris-Rouen is the first automobile race in history. 126 km. 7 steam powered and 14 petrol powered cars participated in this race. Georges Bouton, who finished the race in 5 hours and 40 minutes with the car he built with his partner Albert de Dion, is the unofficial winner of the race. Officially, it did not qualify, because, as required by the rules, the winning car had to be a car that was not dangerous, easy to handle and inexpensive.

Auto enthusiasts face many challenges. The press shoots the "madmen" using this "monster". On the other hand, the necessary infrastructure for the automobile is virtually absent, and in 1898 the first fatal accident occurred: the Marquis of Montaignac dies in an accident in a Landry Beyroux vehicle. However, this accident does not stop participation in other races. Everyone is eager to see what these "horseless chariots" are. Henri Desgrange wrote in the newspaper L'Auto in 1895: “The car will not only be a pleasure for the rich, but have a very practical use. zamthe moment is pretty close. " As a result of these races, steam engines disappear and leave their place to internal combustion engines that show both flexibility and durability. It is also very beneficial to drive the car “on the air” thanks to the Peugeot used by André Michelin. During the Paris - Bordeaux race, the car, which was the only vehicle to use tires and managed by André Michelin, becomes one of the three cars that finishes the race, even though its tires have punctured many times.

Gordon Bennett mug

At the beginning of the 20th century, major newspapers enjoyed considerable reputation and influence. Many sports events were organized by these newspapers. These organizations were showing great success.

In 1889, James Gordon Bennett, wealthy owner of the New York Herald newspaper, decided to hold an international competition that brought together national teams. France, number one among automakers, sets the rules and hosts this competition. On June 14, 1900, the Gordon Bennett automobile coupe starts and continues until 1905.The first race of 554 km is the French Charron, with an average speed of 60,9 km / h in Panhard-Levassor. France demonstrates its leadership in the nascent automotive industry by winning the trophy four times. The cup was made in Ireland in 1903 and in Germany in 1904.

Millions of spectators run to the roads to watch these races, but no safety measures have been taken in the races. After the accidental deaths in the Paris - Madrid race in 1903, racing on the roads open to traffic was prohibited. 8 people died in this race and the race was finished in Bordeaux before arriving in Madrid. After that, races start to be held in the form of rally, on roads closed to traffic. For speed tests, acceleration tracks are established.

Some of today's most prestigious races, such as the Gordon Bennett trophy, began in this period: Le Mans 24 Hours (1923), Monte Carlo Rally (1911), Indianapolis 500 (1911).

Speed ​​records

Camille Jenatzy's electric car, Jamais Contente decorated with flowers after setting a speed record
Auto racing is the same zamIt also provided an opportunity to break speed records at the time. These speed records are an indicator of technical developments, especially in suspension and steering. In addition, it was an important advertising opportunity for automobile manufacturers who broke these records. In addition, only internal combustion engines were not used to reach high speeds. Advocates of steam or electric motors have attempted speed records to prove that oil is not the only efficient source of energy.

First zamThe moment measurement was made in 1897, and Alexandre Darracq, the manufacturer of Gladiator bikes, covered 10 km at 9'45 ”, or 60.504 km / h with the three-wheeled La Triplette. Officially considered the first speed record zamThe moment measurement was taken on the Achères road (Yvelines) in France on 18 December 1898. Count Gaston de Chasseloup-Laubat with his electric car Le Duc de Jeantaud at 63.158 km / h. has made speed. After this attempt, a speed duel begins between the earl and the Belgian "Red Baron" Camille Jenatzy. At the beginning of 1899, the record changed hands four times, and eventually, on the road to Achères on 29 April or 1 May 1899, he overcame the speed limit of 100 km / h with his electric car Camille Jenatzy Jamais Contente to the record at 105.882 km / h. Electricity has been considered by engineers as an alternative energy source for automobiles since the end of the 19th century. A steam vehicle puts an end to the superiority of electric vehicles in speed record. On April 13, 1902, Léon Serpollet with his steam car named L'Œeuf de Pâques speeds 120.805 km / h in Nice. The last speed record-breaking steam car was 26 km per hour, driven by Fred H. Marriott, on January 1905, 195.648, in Daytona Beach, Florida. Stanley Steamer is a speedboat. The 200 km per hour limit was crossed in Brooklands (England) on 6 November 1909 in a Benz engine car with 200 hp driven by the French Victor Héméry at 202.681 km / h. The last speed record was broken on 12 July 1924 in Arpajon (Essonne) in France by the British Ernest AD Eldridge with the Fiat Spéciale Méphistophélès car at 234.884 km / h.

Speed ​​records now continue to be broken by special vehicles. Malcolm Campbell on 25 September 1924 235.206 km / h, Henry Segrave 16 km / h on 1926 March 240.307, JG Parry-Thomas 27 km / h on 1926 April 270.482, Ray Keech on 22 April 1928. They broke the record by passing 334.019 km / h, George ET Eyston 19 km / h on 1937 November 501.166 and John Cobb 15 km / h on 1938 September 563.576. The last speed record, which was broken with an internal combustion engine, was broken by John Cobb, who passed the 400 mph speed limit for the first and last time, at 16 km / h on September 1947, 634.089.

Today, the record for speed on land has been held by British Andy Green since 1 March 1997. This record was broken in Black Rock (Nevada), with the Thrust SSC, powered by 2 Rolls-Royce turboreactors and reaching 100.000 hp. For the first time, 1,227.985 km per hour was passed and the sound wall was passed with a speed of 1.016 Mach.

Michelin era

The Michelin brothers are known for finding automobile tires by developing rubber wheels made by John Boyd Dunlop in 1888. Automobile tires, a very important technical advance, are considered a revolution in automobile history by improving road grip and reducing resistance to moving on the road. Chasseloup-Laubat's trials have proven that car tires offer 35% less resistance than previous wheels. The first Michelin tire to be inflated with air, developed and patented in 1891, is the same zamIt could be disassembled and installed at once. But the reason why the first decade of the 20th century was the Michelin era is for another.

Working at the Map Service of the French Ministry of the Interior, André Michelin remembers a road map that shows the routes that cars can take in a clear line and that even car users who do not know how to use maps can understand. Over several years, Michelin collected various geographic information and published the first 1905 / 1 Michelin map in 100,000 to commemorate the last Gordon Bennett trophy. After this, many maps of France are published in various scales. Michelin also pioneered the construction of traffic signs and town nameplates in 1910. Thus, car users no longer have to get off when they come to a place and ask where they are. The Michelin brothers also pioneered in setting milestones.

It's the same as road maps pop up zamIt also helps the development of public transport infrastructure. The first regular bus services are launched in France from June 1906 by the Compagnie Générale des Omnibus company. Carriage drivers turn into taxi drivers. The number of taxis mostly produced by Renault was around 1914 in 10,000. During World War I, road maps are also used to mark front lines and track troop movement.

Luxury consumption object

The 1900 World's Fair in Paris provides an opportunity to showcase advances in science and technology, but the car takes up little space at this fair. The car is still exhibited in the same area as horse carriages. This situation will not last long.

Automobile becomes a luxury consumption object to be exhibited at fairs. Major auto fairs occur in Paris in 1898 at the Parc de Tuileries. Only cars that successfully completed the Paris - Versailles - Paris track will be accepted for this fair. 1902 bears witness to the first automobile show dedicated to automobiles only and is called the "International Automobile Exhibition". 300 manufacturers participate in this fair. An "incentives association" known today as the Automobile Club de France was founded in 1895 by Albert de Dion, Pierre Meyan and Étienne de Zuylen.

The automobile is far from being a big success. Speaking on the occasion of the auto show, Félix Faure says that the models shown "smell bad and are ugly." Still, large crowds flock to the fairs in a short time to watch these motors. Owning a car comes to be seen as the same as having a social status, and it begins to embellish everyone's dreams. Owning a powerful and big car becomes an indication of separation from the masses. Except for the Ford Model T, which was produced in large numbers, only luxury cars were produced in Europe in the 1920s. As the historian Marc Boyer said, "the automobile is only for touring the property of the rich".

Automobile short zamhas been the subject of many polemics at the time. While the number of cars increased rapidly, suitable infrastructures could not develop at the same pace. Even the auto repair and service were done by the bicycle traders. Cars scare animals, even car drivers are called "chicken killer", it is very loud and emits a disgusting smell. A ban on cars that disturb pedestrians in cities is demanded by many. These people do not hesitate to throw stones or fertilizers into cars that get in their way. The first bans begin in 1889. The Italian Carcano brand “dares” to ride the De Dion-Bouton steam car in downtown Nice. Frightened and surprised citizens apply to the mayor with a petition. The mayor, who enforced the law passed on February 21, 1893, prohibited steam cars from driving around the city center. However, this law was relaxed in 1895, allowing electric or gasoline cars to travel at less than 10 km per hour.

Beyond providing transportation, automobiles also fundamentally changes cultural approaches to transportation. The conflict between technical development and religion is sometimes very harsh. Christian clergymen oppose "this machine that looks more like a devil than a man".

The first road law appeared in 1902. The Supreme Court of France authorizes mayors to establish traffic rules in their cities. Especially 4 km to 10 km per hour. The first traffic signs with speed restrictions appear. From 1893, French laws set the speed limit for the road at 30 km per hour and the speed limit for the residential area at 12 km per hour. These speeds are lower than horse carriages do. Short zamIn some cities, such as Paris, where the number of cars is increasing now, some streets are closed to traffic. Soon the first car licenses and car license plates are revealed.

Despite the introduction of laws, the automobile is still seen as dangerous for some. In 1908, lawyer Ambroise Collin founded what he called "the union for the excesses of the automobile" and sent a letter to all automakers asking them to give up this new industry. However, this letter will not be able to change the course of history.

Cars in 1900 Paris

The development of the railroad in the 19th century shortened the travel time and made it possible to go further with less cost. The automobile, on the other hand, provided a new sense of freedom and travel autonomy that the train could not fully deliver. Those traveling by car zamIt can stop whenever and wherever they want. Most of the car users in France gathered in Paris and the car zamIt was immediately beginning to be seen as a means of embarking on adventure away from the capital. The concept of "tourism" has emerged. Luigi Ambrosini wrote: “The ideal car is one that has the freedom of the old wheelbarrow and the reckless independence of pedestrians. Everyone can go fast. Automobile art is knowing its delay. " Automobile clubs provide information and suggestions about services that members will encounter during their journey, because "the real tourist is the person who does not know where to eat and where to sleep in advance."

The "summer road" extends and takes the French to the Normandy beach, which is the favorite of the summer house. With its long and wide roads, it becomes a natural choice for those who come with Deauville cars and the first traffic jams begin to be seen. Garages for cars are built in cottage towns. As you move away from the city centers, new auto services are established.

Driving is an adventure in itself. Getting on the road by car is both laborious and dangerous. To start the car, the driver has to turn a lever in front of the vehicle that is directly connected to the engine. It is very difficult to rotate this lever due to the high compression ratios, and with the return of the lever after the engine starts, careless drivers can lose their thumbs or even arms. Automobile drivers were also called "drivers" from this period. The French word "chauffeur" means "heater". At that time, drivers had to heat the engine with fuel before starting the car.

Since most cars were not yet covered, the driver and passengers had to be covered to protect them from flying stones or wind and rain. A car that entered the village immediately drew attention with its headdresses resembling women's hats. This type of headgear began to be used with the advent of windshields.

The spread of the automobile

Criminals and cars

The fact that the automobile became a luxury object in a short time has also attracted the attention of criminals. In addition to automobile theft, the automobile has become a tool for criminals to quickly escape from their crime scene. One of the prominent examples is the Bonnot gang, which used the car as a criminal tool. In 1907 Georges Clemenceau creates the first mobile police force to drive cars.

There are many criminals associated with cars. For example, famous robbers of the 1930s, Bonnie and Clyde, were shot and killed in their cars while on the run from the police. Al Capone is known for its Cadillac 130 Town Sedan vehicle, which has a 90 hp V8 engine speeding 85 km / h. Armored and well-equipped for security, this car was used as the seat of US President Franklin Delano Roosevelt after Al Capone's arrest.

Automobile in the cinema

Cinema and automobile, which were in the same period, have been linked from the beginning. Automobile, short for cinema zamit has now become a source of creativity. Chases with cars enchant people, automobile accidents make people laugh. Automobile scenes are shot in burlesque style. The car was frequently used in Laurel and Hardy's comedies, especially in one of their first short films, The Garage. This movie consists only of funny scenes about cars. Especially Ford Model T has been used a lot in his movies. The automobile is an indispensable accessory for cinema, it has been used in a variety of ways, from romantic scenes where two lovers kiss in a car to scenes where the Mafia drives cars to transport the bodies of people killed. Much later, movies such as The Love Bug and Christine would become the leading car.

End of horse carriage bodies

At the beginning of the 20th century, change begins in automobile bodies. The first automobiles resembled cars drawn by horses, both in their propulsion system and in their shape. Cars of the 1900s eventually "liberated" and changed shape.

The first bodywork design belongs to a De Dion-Bouton car, named vis-à-vis, which means “face to face” in French. This car is very short and designed to accommodate four people sitting face to face. A record number of 2.970 units were sold at that time. Jean-Henri Labourdette created the most creative bodies in this period when the car was changing, with the shapes of boats and airplanes he gave to cars.

In the 1910s, some pioneering designers try to make aerodynamic designs in cars. An example is the ALFA 40/60 HP automobile drawn by Castagna with its bodywork resembling guided balloons.

1910-1940 years

Assembly line of Ford Model T cars. With the help of a balancer, the lower compound, which will be mounted on the vehicle, is brought to the working post from the upper floor.

Taylorism

The American economist and engineer Frederick Winslow Taylor put forward a "Scientific Management Theory" called "Taylorism". This theory soon sparked controversy in the automotive world, especially when it was implemented by Henry Ford, and marked a new era in automobile history. [88] American automobile manufacturer Ford calls Taylor's method "Fordism" and from 1908 it reveals the philosophy of this method. This method is not applied only by Ford, Renault in France starts to apply this method, albeit partially, and in 1912 he completely switched to Taylorism.

Taylorism or Fordism in the automobile industry is more than an industrial revolution. With this method, artisans who only make luxury consumer goods to a privileged group become skilled workers who now make ordinary products for the masses. At the beginning of the 20th century, Ford faced many personnel problems such as lack of qualified personnel, absenteeism and alcoholism. With the establishment of production lines that require little or no skilled labor, as Taylorism suggests, production costs drop significantly, allowing this new mode of transport to be available to larger masses.

Rapid development in the USA

The automobile industry develops rapidly. France is a pioneer in automobile design as well as a pioneer in the automotive industry in the USA. The US automotive industry catches a rapid rise with Ford and General Motors. Underlying this success are factors such as standardization, labor economy, and the gathering of businesses. Many US automotive giants appear between 1920 and 1930: Chrysler is founded in 1925, Pontiac in 1926, LaSalle in 1927, and Plymouth in 1928.

In 1901, the US company “Olds Motor Vehicle Company” sells 12.500 of a single model in three years. “Ford Model T”, the first automobile produced according to the “production line” principles that emerged from Taylorism, became the best-selling automobile in the world at that time. Considered the first real "public car", Ford Model T is sold between 1908 and 1927, 15.465.868 units.

In 1907, France and the USA produced about 25.000 cars, while Great Britain produced only 2.500 cars. Automobile production on the production line increased the production numbers. In 1914, 250.000 cars were produced in the USA, of which 485.000 were Ford Model T. In the same year, the production number was 45.000 in France, 34.000 in Great Britain and 23.000 in Germany.

World War I

The automobile played an important role during World War I. Soldiers who are accustomed to riding horses use automobiles to move quickly. Automobiles are also used to transport supplies and ammunition to the front. The organization of both the front and the back has changed. Those injured at the front are now transported behind the front in specially furnished trucks. Mounted ambulances are replaced by motor ambulances.

Marne Taxis is an example of the innovations opened by the car. In 1914, when the Germans broke through the French front, the French planned a major attack. In order to halt the German advance, the French must quickly bring their reserves to the front. Trains are either unusable or not of sufficient capacity. General Joseph Gallieni decides to use Paris taxis to transport the soldiers to the front. On September 7, 1914, all taxis were ordered to mobilize, and within five hours, 600 taxis were under the army's command. These taxis carried 94 soldiers to the front, carrying five people [5.000] and two round trips. Thanks to this idea, Paris survives German occupation. This is the first time the automobile is used on the battlefield and gains substantial support for its industrialization.

Military cars

With the start of the war, the car turns into a war machine in a short time. With regard to the use of the automobile for military purposes, French colonel Jean-Baptiste Estienne says that "victory will be won by those who can mount a cannon on a car that can move in any terrain" and designs an armored vehicle that moves on a track that looks roughly like a tank. Simple Rolls-Royce Silver Ghost cars are covered with armored plates and driven to the front.

Major automotive companies also contribute to the war in this period when everyone across the country contributes to the war. Before World War I broke out, Berliet started supplying equipment to the French Army [98]. Benz produces up to 6.000 personnel carriers. Daimler makes spare parts for submarines. Ford manufactures warships and aircraft. Renault starts producing the first combat tanks. This use of the automobile causes an increase in casualties on the battlefield. It allows opening fire on the enemy in safety and overcoming obstacles called impassable.

The war ends on 11 November 1918. After the war, small car companies also disappeared and only companies producing ammunition and military equipment survived. Although some companies did not work directly in the automobile industry, the materials and techniques developed by companies such as Bugatti and Hispano-Suiza, which produce aircraft engines, have also benefited the automobile industry.

Interwar period 

After the end of World War I in 1918, industry and economy were very weak and factories collapsed. Europe starts to apply the American model to get up again. André Citroën, one of the most successful industrialists of that period, imitates the American model, establishes the Citroën company in 1919 and succeeds in a short time with the innovations he brings to the car. André Citroën visits Henry Ford in the USA to learn about the production methods applied in US auto factories.

But beyond the production methods, the American model is important in terms of understanding the importance of developing a "public car" like Ford Model T. Many European automotive manufacturers start to produce cars of this class. France provides tax exemptions for companies producing small cars. Peugeot produces the "Quadrilette" and Citroën the famous "Citroën Type C" models.

Crazy years

Within ten years, Europe develops and consolidates the automotive industry. In 1926, Mercedes and Benz merged to form the luxury and sports car manufacturer Mercedes-Benz. Ferdinand Porsche was the technical director of this company between 1923 and 1929. As a result of this merger, the "S" model is born and more sporty "SS", "SSK" and "SSKL" models emerge. BMW, on the other hand, successfully completed its transformation in 1923.

While the automobile managed to reach larger audiences, in the 1920s all zamautomobiles that are considered the most beautiful designs of the moments emerge. These luxury cars are tough zamIt is the symbol of prosperity regained after moments. Two prominent models of this period are: Isotta Fraschini's “Tipo 8” model and Hispano-Suiza's “Type H6” model. The first of these cars, which have very large dimensions, has an engine of 5,9 liters and the second 6,6 liters.

Bugatti company will also be successful in this period. Jean Bugatti, who is responsible for automobile design, puts his signature on "bold, large curves that emerge with wide movements and combine with elegance". Bugatti "Royale", one of the most typical automobiles of this period, is produced in 1926 in 6 units. This model, which is the most luxurious car of the brand, was made only for rulers and elites. The price of this car with an axle span of 4,57 m and a 14,726-liter engine is over 500.000 French francs.

Although the British brand Rolls-Royce emerged in 1906, it expanded in the 1920s. The partnership between the successful dealer Rolls and the quality-savvy perfectionist Royce has resulted in the "most expensive but the best in the world" cars. [104] This gaudy period, in which frame work takes an important place in automobile design, will be short.

Economic crisis again

The period between the two world wars has been a golden age for luxury cars because cars are now improved in terms of reliability, road infrastructure has improved, but legal regulations for cars are still on the way. France boasts of having the best roads in the world for that period. But the "Black Thursday" of Wall Street in 1929 had a bad impact on the automotive industry like other economic sectors. The US automotive industry was the first to be affected by the crisis and sales fell immediately. Against the production of 1930 cars in 2.500.000 in the USA, only 1932 cars were built in 1.500.000. The "crazy years" were followed by a period of doubt and uncertainty.

To increase automobile production, European and American manufacturers introduce lighter, faster and more economical models. The progress made in the improvement of engines and gearboxes played an important role in the emergence of these models. This period also witnessed a true aesthetic revolution. Cabriolet, coupé model cars emerged. More aerodynamic body designs have started to be used on the engines that have been developed more and more. Streamline Moderne, now an Art déco trend in automobiles zammemory. Body styles have changed considerably. While 1919% of cars had open bodywork until the 90s, this ratio was reversed in the 1929s. Now, efforts are made to make production using logic and to increase comfort, ease of use and safety.

Milestone in the car

Front drive

Front wheel drive in the car does not attract much attention from manufacturers. From the 1920s, two engineers experimented with front-wheel drive, especially on racing cars. In 1925, a front-wheel drive Miller "Junior 8" car designed by Cliff Durant takes part in the Indianapolis 500 race. The vehicle driven by Dave Lewis completes the general classification in second place. Automaker Harry Miller continues to use this technology in racing cars, but not in automobile production.

Although the French Jean-Albert Grégoire founded Tracta company on this principle in 1929, it will be necessary to wait for two American automakers Cord and Ruxton for front-wheel drive to have a significant impact. Cord's “L-29” model sells approximately 4.400 units [109]. In 1931, DKW switched to this technology with the Front model. But this technology begins widespread use a few years later with the Citroën Traction Avant model. The benefit of front wheel drive is that the center of gravity is lowered and road holding is improved.

Single volume body

The use of single-volume bodywork is also an important milestone for automobile manufacturing. Lancia began using it in the 1960s, long before the widespread implementation of this body type in the 1920s. Vincenzo Lancia, who studied the boats, developed a steel structure on which side panels and seats can be installed instead of the classic chassis. This structure also increases the overall strength of the car. The Lancia Lambda, exhibited at the Paris motor show in 1922, is the first model with a single-volume bodywork. The use of steel is increasing in automobiles, and Citroën makes the first all-steel model. This body model is increasingly used by many automobile manufacturers from the 1930s. These include Chrysler's Airflow in 1934, Lincoln's Zephyr in 1935, or Nash's "600" model.

Mid 20th century

II. world War

II. During World War II, the automobile almost disappeared in Europe and was replaced by bicycle and bicycle taxis. During this period, cars cannot leave their owners' garages, especially due to the lack of gasoline. Automobile engines operating with wood gas, used to replace gasoline engines, emerged in this period. Panhard was the first automobile manufacturer to deal with this engine type. In France, this engine is added to about 130.000 cars under German occupation.

The automobile faces new challenges in 1941. European industry falls under the control of Germany, where it is occupied. Despite the challenges of designing new cars, most manufacturers start designing models for the future. The war provided a technological development opportunity for the automobile as in other fields and allowed an increase in production on the tape [116]. Automatic gearbox, automatic clutch, hydraulic suspensions and synchronized gearboxes have been installed on cars. The light reconnaissance vehicle Jeep Willys, created for the US government in 1940, is only for the II. It has not become a symbol of World War, the same zamIt has also become a symbol of the developments implemented in automobiles.

Postwar

Immediately after the war, the car could only be bought by some privileged people. The majority of cars sold in Europe came from the US industry, as European automakers were trying to rebuild their plants. Post-war Europe was in poverty, and countries had to restructure before taking care of the automobile. Although models such as the Renault 1946CV exhibited at the 4 auto show gave a positive sign about the future, inflation and the fact that wages did not increase caused the purchasing power of families to decrease.

European industry returns to normal between 1946-1947. Automobile production in the world increases significantly. Between 1945 and 1975 this number increased from 10 million to 30 million. Small economy cars emerge in Europe thanks to technical development, increased productivity and industrial intensity.

This increase also shows the emergence of a consumer society that goes beyond just meeting its basic needs. Undoubtedly, the sector that benefits most from this situation is the automotive sector. Producers have to make mass production in the face of constantly increasing demand.

In 1946, the first 10.000 "Vosvos" are produced in Germany. Renault 1946CV, which started production in France in 4, was produced more than 1954 by 500.000. Small Fiat cars launched in Italy just before the war achieve unprecedented success. With some delay, he started producing small cars with the famous Mini in England. These figures show that a new era has begun for the automobile. Cars are now being used by the whole society, not the upper class.

Car legends

Enzo Ferrari has been participating in auto racing on the Alfa Romeo team since the 1920s, but II. He leaves Alfa Romeo to start his own company before World War II. But the cars he made with his company called Avio Costruzioni only became known after the war, and “its name became the most well-known brand in automobile history.” In 1947, the first Ferrari racing car was produced under the name Ferrari 125 S.

In 1949, the racing car Ferrari 166 MM wins the Le Mans 24 Hours and the Ferrari 166 S becomes the first tourist car manufactured at the Maranello factories. These two models, made for different uses, have many common points, especially mechanical. In the 1950s, Ferrari added fame to its brand by winning many endurance races.

After the war, Ferdinand Porsche, who was imprisoned for collaborating with the Nazis, is freed. After his release in 1947, he started working on a prototype named "356" with his son Ferry Porsche. This prototype is a small roadster model with a rear engine like the "Vosvos" designed by Ferdinand Porsche. Officially showing the emergence of the Porsche brand, the final version of this prototype is exhibited in the 1949 Geneva automobile hall and attracts everyone's attention with its "agility, short wheelbase and economy". The reputation of the brand will increase day by day with its successful mechanics and timeless lines.

The birth of championships

Between the years 1920-1930, automobiles specially made for sportive competitions appear. However, this sports discipline became widespread in 1946 after the rules were introduced by the Fédération Internationale du Sport Automobile (International Automobile Sports Federation).

As auto racing spreads rapidly, the International Automobile Federation (FIA) decides in 1950 to organize a worldwide race to be attended by automakers. This international championship consists of six European "grand prix" with the exception of the Indianapolis 500. The races are open to Formula 4,5 cars with displacement not exceeding 1 liters and Indy Cars during the Indianapolis 500. The Alfa Romeo Alfetta (type 158 and 159) models used by Giuseppe Farina and Juan Manuel Fangio leave their mark on the entire championship. On top of that the FIA ​​creates categories. Formula 2 thus appears in 1952.

Despite the technical stagnation experienced by automakers such as Lada, Trabant and GAZ in the Eastern Bloc countries, the car was reserved for nomenklatura only. Although there was no innovation in Eastern Europe, pioneers of innovation were emerging in the west.

British automaker Rover decides to adapt the turbine, which was only used in aircraft so far, to a ground vehicle. In 1950, they exhibit the first model driven by a turbine, called the "Jet 1". Rover continues to develop and manufacture turbine-powered cars until the 1970s. In France, Jean-Albert Grégoire and Socéma company develop a model equipped with a turbine and capable of speeds of 200 km / h. However, in its shape resembling a missile, the most famous car equipped with a turbine is the "Firebird" model of General Motors. The first Firebird model, called the XP-21, was produced in 1954.

Considered the first American sports car, the 1953 Chevrolet Corvette has many innovations. In addition to being the first serial car to bear the lines of a concept vehicle, it is the first car made of glass fiber with a synthetic bodywork. In France, the Citroën DS stands out with many innovations it has brought: power steering, disc brakes, automatic gearbox, hydropneumatic suspensions and aerodynamics.

Gaining international qualification

From the 1950s onwards, the automobile ceases to be the "toy" of only the USA and a few European countries. Having a previously isolated market, Sweden makes its first car to open to the international market in 1947 with the Volvo PV 444 model. This is again followed by Swedish automaker Saab. US and European automakers open new factories, expanding to southern countries, especially Latin America. From 1956, Volkswagen Beetle begins to be produced in Brazil. In order to take over the Australian market, the Holden brand was founded by General Motors in 1948 and began producing cars specific to this country.

Japan gradually begins to increase its production by producing its first serial cars. Some manufacturers form partnerships with western companies to avoid industry delays. American statistician William Edwards Deming developed in Japan the methods of quality management that were the basis for the development of the post-war Japanese economy, later referred to as the "Japanese miracle".

Unprecedented progress

The significant economic growth experienced in the 1950s also provides a significant increase in automobile production. II. The industry, which was re-established after the World War, begins to show its effect. As a result of the increase in the level of welfare, the sale of consumer goods increases and new technological developments are paved. Since 1954, the sales price of automobiles has been reduced for the first time in years. Loans are now used to own a car. In the 1960s, everybody in industrialized countries has come to the point of buying a car. In the fifties, automobile production in the USA reaches unprecedented figures until then. 1947 million cars were produced in 3,5, 1949 million in 5 and about 1955 million cars in 8.

While larger and larger cars are being produced in the USA, it is more common to develop economical cars with medium engine displacement in Europe. From 1953, Europeans catch up with the USA and gain leadership in the small and medium-sized vehicle market. Benefiting from the aid provided by the Allied Forces and US investments, Germany becomes the European leader in automobile production. Still, companies such as BMW and Auto-Union, whose factories remain in regions entered by the Soviets, will not be able to benefit immediately from this economic growth. Mercedes-Benz, which produces cars in the middle and luxury segment, shows its desire to be the leader of the world market. As a result of this desire, the Mercedes-Benz 1954 SL, which became the symbol of the 1950s with its doors opening like a "gull wing", is exhibited in the 300 New York automobile hall.

Automobile design evolves

In terms of style, automobile design becomes increasingly creative. Two very different currents deeply affect automobile design. These are American prosperity and Italian delicacy. Americans give first importance to design. The design giants working for "The Big Three of Detroit" are Harley Earl for General Motors, George Walker for Ford and Virgil Exner for Chrysler. He took part in the development of design in Raymond Loewy and led the founding of the industrial designers association in 1944. Three years later it appears on the cover of Time magazine. Its most beautiful design is the Studebaker Starliner from 1953.

But it is the Italian style design that will last longer. The big names of automobile design still maintain their leadership in this field: Pininfarina, Bertone, Zagato, Ghia… This new fashion was launched by Pininfarina at the 1947 Paris automobile salon with the Cisitalia 202 model, which was “decisive in post-war car design” with its downward hood design.

Although design studios have existed in the USA since the 1930s, they do not yet exist in Europe. Simca, who understands the importance of design, establishes the first design studio in Europe. Other auto companies soon saw the collaboration between Pininfarina and Peugeot, hitting similar studios.

The development of highways

The rapid development of the automobile market since the 1910s causes the development of the road network. In 1913, the US decides to build a highway from New York to San Francisco, called the Lincoln Highway, that would cross the country. Most of the construction costs are covered by the automobile manufacturers of the time.

In the 1960s, the road network in the world reaches a different dimension. In particular, the US begins to develop projects called the Interstate Highway System. The US Federal Government provides for the establishment of a highway network with the Federal Highway Acts in 1944, 1956 and 1968, reaching 1968 km in 65.000. Now "American life is organized around the highway," and the auto industry and oil companies benefit the most.

In Europe, Germany II. He continues to develop Autobahn projects he started during World War II. Maintaining its "economic and social conservatism", France's road network has been confined to a section west of Paris for years.

The development of almost all major cities in the United States is the same as it is around major highways. zamAt that moment, a great dependency arose in the society. Some saw it as a psychological addiction, while others viewed it as an addiction to a practical method of transportation. The consequences of automobile addiction include increased traffic congestion, air pollution, increased traffic accidents, and increased cardiovascular disease caused by lack of physical exercise in cities [141]. This addiction is further increased by the cars mothers use to transport their children due to the risks caused by cars in cities.

The concept of "car addiction" was popularized by Australian writers Peter Newman and Jeffrey Kenworthy. Newman and Kenworthy argue that this dependence is not on the drivers but on city regulations that create addiction to the car. On the other hand, Gabriel Dupuy states that those who want to leave the automobile system cannot give up on this because they cannot be separated from the many benefits provided by the automobile.

Experts have suggested many reasons for this addiction. The most important of these are cultural reasons. Those who want to live in their "houses with garden and away from the city" instead of crowded cities cannot give up the car.

Compact cars

1956 is the year when the crisis returned to the automobile industry. Automobile fuel prices soared as a result of the nationalization of the Suez Canal by the Egyptian President Gamal Abdünnasir. As a result of the ensuing economic shock, consumption thinking has radically changed: After a significant economic boom, the automobile is now being used for pragmatic purposes only.

Automakers were faced with a problem they hadn't tackled before: the fuel consumption of cars. Automakers begin to design smaller cars that are not longer than 4,5 meters and are called compact. The USA, which was particularly affected by this crisis, produces smaller cars since 1959. The most well-known of these are Chevrolet Corvair, Ford Falcon and Chrysler Valiant. Much smaller cars such as the Austin Mini do very well during this period.

Unification of manufacturers

Some automakers had to merge in the face of the economic crisis, and some were bought by large companies. From the late 1960s to the early 1980s, the number of major car manufacturer groups decreased as a result of this mobility. Citroën purchases Panhard in 1965 and Maserati in 1968; Establishes the PSA group by purchasing Peugeot Citroën and the European part of Chrysler; Renault takes control of American Motors but then sells it to Chrysler; Under the VAG group, Audi, Seat later merge into Škoda; While Saab joins General Motors, Volvo moves to the Ford group; Fiat acquires Alfa Romeo, Ferrari and Lancia in 1969.

The companies continue to be sold. In 1966, Jaguar, which had previously acquired Daimler, forms BMC British Motor Holding and later merged with Leyland Motor Corporation to form the British Leyland Motor Corporation. In 1965, the "Audi-NSU-Auto Union" group was formed by Volkswagen.

Consumer rights and security

The number of traffic accidents is quite high. US President Lyndon B. Johnson states that in 1965, the number of road traffic deaths in the United States in the past two decades exceeded 1,5 million, higher than the casualties in recent wars. Ralph Nader publishes a brochure called Unsafe at any speed, which outlines the responsibility of automakers. As the number of traffic accidents doubled in France between 1958 and 1972, Prime Minister Jacques Chaban-Delmas states that “the French road network is not suitable for heavy and fast traffic”.

In 1971, Australians first accepted the obligation to wear seat belts after voting. As a result of these new priorities, front-wheel drive becomes more important than rear-wheel drive. Most automakers are now starting to produce front-wheel drive cars. In France, the famous rear-engined Renault 4CV is replaced by the front-wheel drive R4. It also switches to front-wheel drive in the US, and the Oldsmobile Toronado becomes the first front-wheel drive car. In auto racing, the middle back position, that is, just in front of the rear team, takes priority. This position provides a more ideal distribution of weights and reduces swaying and tilting movements in the dynamic performance of the vehicle.

As a result of the awareness about the safety of the automobile in the 1960s, consumer rights emerge as an innovation in the society. General Motors is forced to halt the sale of the Chevrolet Corvair model after consumer rights advocate Ralph Nader reveals that American cars are unsafe at Unsafe at any speed. Nader wins many lawsuits filed in the automobile industry and in 1971 he founded the American consumer rights protection association named "Public Citizen".

The increasing number of cars in the city makes things even more difficult. Air pollution, traffic congestion and lack of parking spaces are some of the problems faced by cities. Some cities try to revert to trams as an alternative to cars, it is recommended that several people use cars together, not alone.

The oil crisis of the 1970s

With the outbreak of the Arab-Israeli War on October 6, 1973, the first oil crisis occurred. As a result of this conflict, OPEC members, including the largest oil producing countries, decide to increase the gross oil price, and then the auto industry faces a major energy crisis. The US has to produce smaller cars, but new models cannot be very successful in this conservative market. New body types emerge as a result of the crisis in Europe. Instead of long sedan type vehicles, two-volume cars with a length not exceeding 4 m and whose rear trunk is not separated from the interior space emerge. Volkswagen Golf, designed by Italian Ital Design in 1974, emerges and gains a great success with its “attractive and functional” lines.

In 1979, the second oil crisis broke out as a result of the outbreak of war between Iran and Iraq. The price per barrel of oil doubles. The automobile enters a major period of absence. For example, in Los Angeles, vehicles are only allowed to buy fuel every other day, according to their license plate numbers. To reduce fuel consumption, auto manufacturers start to design more aerodynamic cars. The drag coefficient "Cx" is included in the automobile design specifications.

Redesigned engines

As a result of the energy crisis, it has become a necessity to start researches to optimize the fuel consumption of automobiles and the design of automobile engines has been renewed. Automobile manufacturers have sought to increase their efficiency by redesigning the combustion chambers and stepping inlets of engines and by reducing the friction that occurs during the movement of the piston in the engine crankcase. In addition, the injection system has been replaced by carburetors. The amplitude of regime changes has been reduced by increasing transmission ratios.

The diesel engine has been used in commercial vehicles since the 1920s, but was not very popular in private cars. Mercedes was the only manufacturer to produce large sedans with Diesel engines since 1936. The end of 1974 was an important turning point for cars using diesel engines. Diesel engines with better thermodynamic efficiency compared to gasoline engines consumed less fuel. Because of these features, most of the automakers have shown great interest in Diesel engine. Volkswagen and Oldsmobile launched Diesel-powered cars from 1976, Audi and Fiat from 1978, Renault and Alfa Romeo from 1979. Government supports that reduce diesel taxes have helped behind the production of cars with Diesel engines rather than gasoline engines.

Turbochargers allow the compression of air entering the combustion chamber where fuel is injected. In this way, more air is provided in the same cylinder volume and thus the efficiency of the engine increases. This technique has only been used in some BMW, Chevrolet and Porsche models since 1973. However, it has become widespread thanks to the operating system of diesel engines. Thanks to the turbo, it is possible that the power of diesel engines is higher than gasoline engines.

The spread of electronics

The use of electronics in automobile design becomes widespread in almost all technological fields. The combustion process and fuel supply of the engines are now electronically controlled. Fuel injection, flow and injection zamIt is adjusted by microprocessors that optimize its instant.

Automatic gearboxes begin to be used more effectively thanks to programs that regulate gear shifting. Suspensions are electronically adjusted to the road conditions or the rider's usage style.

Thanks to electronics, active safety systems of vehicles develop and systems that assist the driver such as anti-skidding begin to be used in automobiles. In four-wheel-drive cars, the processors working with the help of sensors determine the wheel spin and automatically switch from two-wheel drive to four-wheel drive by distributing the torque from the engine to all wheels. [153] Bosch company develops the ABS (Anti-Blocking System or Antiblockiersystem) system, which prevents the wheels from locking during severe braking.

Between 1970 and 1980, computer aided systems were used in automobile design and CAD (Computer-aided design) became widespread.

End of the 20th century

New challenges

Automobile became an integral part of society at the end of the 20th century. In developed countries, there is almost one car per person. This density also causes many problems. The automobile has been the focus of many debates since the 1970s, especially due to its negative effects on the environment and issues such as road safety, with accidental deaths becoming a major problem.

States begin to impose harsh conditions against those who do not obey traffic rules. While most countries are transitioning to points requiring driving licenses, some add prison sentences to their laws. Safety measures are taken in automobile design and crash tests are required in order to reduce the death rate as a result of accidents.

At the beginning of the 20th century, an international community movement called Carfree emerged. This movement supports cities or neighborhoods that do not have cars. Anti-automobile activism is increasing. The perception of the car goes through a real evolution. Buying a car is no longer considered gaining a status. In big metropolises, applications such as car use with subscription and shared car use emerge.

Low cost cars

The development of the automobile market and the rise of the oil price cause the spread of low-cost, simple, low-consumption and low-polluting car designs such as the Dacia Logan developed by Renault. Logan earns a significant success; It sold more than 2007 copies at the end of October 700.000. As a result of this success, other automakers start working on low-cost, even very low-cost car models such as the Tata Nano, which started to be sold in India for € 1.500 in 2009.

In general, low-cost cars Romania, Iran, the economy in developing countries such as Turkey and Morocco are also a great success possible accidents in the more developed countries like France make many sales.

These new trends, with the addition of the cost of retired personnel, have been instrumental in the contraction of American automakers such as General Motors, as they are unable to offer products that match the world demand, including their own markets.

Modified cars

Modified cars or tuning is a fashion that emerged in the 2000s that involves refining and customizing cars. At the heart of this trend is those who make changes that improve the mechanics of cars and increase engine power.

Generally, they modify almost all of their cars with those who follow this fashion. Turbos are added to the engines, aerodynamic kits are fitted to the body and painted in eye-catching colors. Very powerful sound systems are added to the cabin. Modified cars generally concern young people who want a unique and different car. The amounts paid for the modified car are quite high. Aware of the potential of this fashion, manufacturers also prepare "tuning kits" for their models.

Towards a car without petrol

Experts agreed that oil resources will decrease. In 1999, transportation accounted for 41% of the world's oil use. As a result of the growth of some Asian countries such as China, production will decrease while increasing the use of gasoline. Transportation may be deeply affected in the near future, but alternative solutions to gasoline are both more expensive and less efficient today. Automakers will now have to design cars that can run without oil. Existing alternative solutions are inefficient or less efficient but the same zamThe benefits for the environment are currently controversial.

Increasingly tougher regulations to reduce the impact on the environment force automakers to design engines with reduced fuel consumption or to launch hybrid cars such as the Prius until a car that is clean for the environment can be built. These hybrid cars consist of a conventional internal combustion engine and one or more batteries that power the electric motor. Today, many manufacturers have turned towards electricity as the power source of future cars. Some cars, such as the Tesla Roadster, run on electricity only.

Early 21st century

New bodies

At the beginning of the 21st century, new types have emerged in automobile bodies. Previously, car manufacturers' model options were limited to sedans, station wagons, coupes or cabriolets. Increasing competition and playing on the world stage prompted automobile manufacturers to create new body types by crossing existing models with each other. The first type of SUV (Sport utility vehicle) created by this trend. It was created by making the 4 × 4 off-road vehicle suitable for use in the city. Nissan Qashqai, one of the most well-known crossover models, tries to offer options that will please both SUV and classic sedan users. SUV and Crossover are also very popular in the USA.

German automakers are among the most creative in this field. Mercedes launched the CLS, a five-door sedan coupe, in 2004; Volkswagen introduced the coupe-confort version of the sedan Passat in 2008 and BMW started selling the 4 × 4 coupé BMW X6 in the same year.

Financial crisis

The world financial crisis that broke out in 2007 dealt a heavy blow to the automobile industry. The financial world, which has been affected by the real estate market credit crisis since July, has been turned upside down and affected most of the automobile manufacturers. Producers were afraid that this crisis would create anxiety on consumers. In addition, two-thirds of automobile sales were made on bank loans, banks increasingly struggling to lend and interest rates were on the rise.

The US automotive industry was particularly affected by this crisis. Known for its large and fuel-consuming cars, this country's industry had difficulties in restructuring, innovating, and especially designing ecological cars. Ecological problems were now of great concern to the American consumer. One zammoments The Detroit Big Three (Detroit's three biggest), Chrysler, General Motors and Ford, the leaders of the US market, were on the brink of bankruptcy. Three automakers applied to the US Congress on December 2, 2008 for a bailout plan and $ 34 billion in aid. Some even mention the disappearance of the Chrsyler, most affected by the crisis, but the group's chairman, Bob Nardelli, expressed confidence that the company could survive on January 11, 2009. Governments in Europe and the European Investment Bank support the automobile industry.

Electric cars

Propulsion by electric motors has been known for over a century. Thanks to the technological development in batteries today, Li-ion batteries make it possible to build cars that can reach the performance of normal cars. Tesla Roadster is an example of the performance of this type of car.

New infrastructures such as fast battery charging stations need to be developed in order for the electric car to settle. In addition, recycling the batteries remains a problem. Such infrastructures can only be made through decisions at national level. Issues such as whether a country's electricity generation is sufficient for itself, whether it uses coal to generate electricity will affect whether the electric vehicle is energy clean compared to vehicles with thermal engines.

Almost all automakers, from Mercedes-Benz to Toyota, exhibited 2009 electric cars, most of which are still concepts, at the 32 Frankfurt auto show. Displaying a range of four electric cars, Renault's president Carlos Ghosn has announced that they will sell 2011 electric Renault Fluence in Israel and Denmark from 2016 to 100.000. Volkswagen announced that it will launch the E-Up electric car in 2013 and the Peugeot iOn from the end of 2010. Mitsubishi's i-Miev model is on sale.

The development of the world car park

Past growth

The world car park has developed very rapidly over the years. As a result of the efforts made for the war, many technological innovations emerged after World War I, but the same zamProduction methods and machinery improvements have also been found that allow automobile production to increase significantly. Between 1950 and 1970, world automobile production tripled, from 10 million to 30 million. The environment of prosperity and peace has enabled the automobile, which is a consumption tool for comfort, to be purchased. World automobile production, which reached 2002 million in 42, has doubled in 2007 years, exceeding 70 million with the growth of China after 40. Although the 2007-2008 crisis decreased automobile sales in Europe and the USA, the increase in the world automobile park continued with the sales in the markets of developing countries.

Future growth

Thanks to the growing Chinese and South American markets, automobile sales increased by 2007% in 4 and the world market exceeded 900 million. Experts estimate that the billion mark will be crossed before the end of 2010. In countries with high car numbers, the renewal of the car park is slow because the average vehicle life is 10 years.

Still, many automobile markets are facing difficulties due to the crisis. The US market, which has seen a clear decrease in sales, is the automobile market most affected by the crisis. Automobile sales fell by about 2008 million units in 15 as a result of the change in the economic conjuncture, namely the decrease in wages, unemployment, increase in property and oil prices.

New markets

Highly populated countries such as Russia, India and China are markets with high potential for automobiles. In the European Union, an average of 1000 cars per 600 people, this number is 200 for Russia and only 27 for China. In addition, after the sales declined in the USA due to the crisis, China became the number one automobile market in the world. According to experts, the crisis only accelerated this conclusion. In addition, the Chinese government's support for the automobile industry, such as reducing automobile purchase taxes, has also contributed to this phenomenon.

Some long-term estimates show that by 2060 the world car park will reach 2,5 billion, and 70% of this increase will be due to countries with very low number of cars per person such as China and India.

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