Lung Cancer Symptoms, Causes and Treatment


According to the data of the World Health Organization, lung cancer is the most common cancer type that causes death in the world… Among all causes of death, lung cancer, which is the second most common cause of death after cardiovascular diseases, is most commonly seen in the age range 50-70.

Lung cancer is referred to a physician stating that 90% of patients with symptomatic Turkey Business Bank subsidiary flourishing Icerenkoy Hospital of Chest Diseases Specialist Dr. Muharrem Tokmak said, “As the lung and bronchial system lacks pain sensation and cough, which is usually the first symptom, cannot be evaluated as a symptom by smoking patients, the diagnosis of lung cancer is mostly made at advanced stages. For this reason, regular checks are of great importance. "People with lung cancer in their family should be more careful because the risk of developing this disease increases 2,4 times."

The lungs, which enable the body to take in oxygen and remove harmful carbon dioxide, are a vital organ. In lung cancer, which occurs as a result of uncontrolled proliferation of cells in the lung tissue, this uncontrolled proliferation covers a part of the lungs, forms a mass and can spread to distant organs called metastases.

Turkey Business Bank subsidiary flourishing Icerenkoy from the Department of Chest Diseases Specialist Hospital. Dr. Muharrem Tokmak stated that smoking is one of the leading factors leading to lung cancer and said, "Although a strong link has been established between smoking and the lung in the studies conducted, 15% of the cases are non-smokers." said.


Stating that 90% of lung cancer patients apply to a physician with symptoms Exp. Dr. Muharrem Tokmak, He stated that the symptoms vary according to whether they are regional, metastatic or widespread. He stated that the diagnosis of lung cancer is mostly made in advanced stages as the lung and bronchial system lacks the sense of pain and cough, which is usually the first symptom, cannot be evaluated as a symptom by smoking patients. Exp. Dr. Knoblisted the main symptoms and causes of lung cancer:

  • Cough: It is present in more than 75% of cases. It develops due to airway obstruction, infection and compression effect on lung tissue.
  • Weight loss: This symptom, seen at a rate of 68%, is seen in cases of advanced cancer and liver metastasis.
  • Respiratory distress: This symptom, which is seen at a rate of 60%, may occur as a result of obstruction of the large airways with a tumor, fluid accumulation between the lung membranes called pleura and paralysis of the diaphragm muscle.
  • Chest pain: It is seen at a rate of 50%. Cancer may have spread to the chest wall or nerves may be involved.
  • Coughing up blood (hemoptysis): These symptoms occur in approximately 25% of patients. It occurs when the airway is held by the tumor and necrosis.
  • Bone pain: It occurs in 25% and when there is bone metastasis.
  • Club finger: It occurs due to decreased oxygenation and bone reactions.
  • Hoarseness: It may be due to the involvement of the vocal cords.
  • Difficulty swallowing: It occurs as a result of pressure on the esophagus.
  • The more rare symptoms are: Back pain, right side pain, epilepsy, palpable mass in the neck, whistling sounds can be heard while breathing.


Stating that 80-90% of lung cancer patients have a smoking history and that smoking is one of the leading factors that increase the risk of lung cancer. Chest Diseases Specialist Dr. Muharrem TokmakStating that the risk of cancer development is affected by the age of starting to smoke, the duration of smoking, the type of cigarette and the amount of cigarettes consumed daily, he also gave information about other causes of lung cancer.

  • Environment: Industrial and environmental factors are important for lung cancer development. There is a relationship between lung cancer and exposure to substances such as radon gas, asbestos, air pollution, radioisotopes, heavy metals and mustard gas.
  • Genetic: It is suggested that hereditary factors are effective in the development of lung cancer. If there is an individual with lung cancer in the family, the risk of developing it increases 2,4 times.
  • Viruses: Lung cancer is more likely to occur in people with HIV infection.
  • Radiation: Radiation from any source can damage the lung tissue, causing damage to the structure of bronchial cells and carcinogenesis.


Staging was made by considering the tumor cell type and spread to other organs while planning the treatment. Exp. Dr. Muharrem Tokmak, “Basically there are 4 stages in the lung, and the earlier the disease is, the better the chances of getting treatment. Patients diagnosed in the early period can live for many years with surgery. Surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immunotherapy, molecular, targeted therapies or different combinations can be applied according to the stage and cell type in the treatment of the disease. Long-term chemotherapy, targeted therapies or immunotherapies can provide long-term control of the disease at these stages. However, radiological controls are required at regular intervals due to the risk of developing resistance and progression to treatments. As a result, survival is higher in cancers that are caught at an early stage and can be surgically removed. " she said.


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