Designed and manufactured in Turkey is thought to be the first automobile Anadol. However, Anadol's design was made by the British Reliant company (Reliant FW5) and production was made in Otosan with a license obtained from this company. Anadol's chassis, engines and transmissions are provided by Ford.
The first Turkish car in terms of design and engineering is Revolution. Before Revolution (in 1953), there have been studies that we can call "the test in nature" on the manufacture of automobiles, however, the Revolution can be viewed as the first Turkish structure and even the first Turkish type car.
Although it is claimed that Anadol is the first car to go into mass production in Turkey, the real owner of this title is a small car named Nobel 200. Produced under license in many countries of the world, this car; Nobel in Turkey, England and Chile, Fuldamobil in Germany and South Africa, Fram King Fulda in Sweden, Bambi in Argentina, Bambino in the Netherlands, Attica in Greece, and in India. It hit the road with Hans Vahaar brands. The production of this small car, which started to be assembled in Turkey in 1958, was terminated in 1961. In the world, it remained in production between 1950-1969.
Attempts to deal
Otokoç, which was founded by Vehbi Koç in 1928, became the representative of Ford Motor Company in 1946, and after 1954 began to meet with Ford representatives to produce a car in Turkey. In 1956, Vehbi Koç received a letter from the then Prime Minister Adnan Menderes and went to Henry Ford II with Bernar Nahum and Kenan İnal. These contacts worked and it was decided to cooperate. In 1959, the Koç group founded Otosan. The assembly of Ford trucks started at Otosan.
Fiberglass idea and automobile production
In 1963, while Bernar Nahum and Rahmi Koç were at the Izmir Fair, an Israeli-made fiberglass vehicle caught their attention. This method, which is very cheap compared to sheet metal production, encouraged Vehbi Koç to start domestic automobile production. Designed by the partnership of Koç Holding and Ford, Anadol was designed by the British Reliant company, and the chassis and engines supplied by Ford were used in the vehicle. The production of Anadol began on 19 December 1966, it was first exhibited on 1 January 1967 and its sale began on 28 February 1967.
Anadol name and production
The name Anadol comes from the word Anadolu, and as a result of the name competition, Anadolu, Anadol and Koç were selected from among the finalists and Otosan Automobile Industry A.Ş. started to be produced in the factory in Istanbul. The emblem of Anadol symbolizes one of the deer statues of the Hittites. The production of Anadol, which continued from 1966 to 1984, was stopped in 1984, instead the production of Ford Taunus, which was discontinued in the world under the license of Ford Motor Company, was started, but the production of Otosan 500 and 600D pickups continued until 1991. Today, it continues the production of Ford light commercial vehicles in its new facilities in Gölcük under the license of Otosan Ford Motor Company and exports Ford Motor Company licensed automobiles to many countries, especially the European Union.
Vehicle features and sales
Although Anadol's production started on December 19, 1966, the approval of the "Qualification Certificate" required for sales and traffic registration and the "Regulation showing technical conditions for the manufacture, modification and assembly of vehicles" was received from the Chamber of Mechanical Engineers on February 28, 1967. hence, Anadol sales started after this date.
Anadol's first models were designed by British Reliant and Ogle Design. Ford engines are also used as engines in Anadol, the body of which is made of glass fiber and polyester in all models. The first engine used is the 1200 cc Kent engine of Ford's Cortina model.
Anadol, which was put on sale in December 1966, was sold in 1984 thousand units until its production was stopped in 87. The few remaining examples are considered classics today and are preserved and used by enthusiasts. In addition, it is still used in small cities of Anatolia, from which it is named, with its form cut in the middle and made of pickup trucks. In addition, the British made an effort to produce the same Anadol in New Zealand, and today Anadol is used on an island belonging to New Zealand.
This technology was being used around the world, as the hull was fiberglass, spreading negative rumors for its hood, causing rumors that it was eaten by oxen, goats and donkeys.
Anadol / A1 (1966-1975)
Anadol A1 was developed by the British Reliant Company with the code “FW5” upon the order of Otosan Automobile Industry A.Ş. and its production started on 19 December 1966. The design of the A1 was drawn by Tom Karen from the British company Ogle Design. Ford Cortina's 1 cc 1200 model Kent engine was used for the first time in A1959 production, and in 1968 this engine was replaced with a more powerful 1300 cc Ford Crossflow engine. In 1969, the dashboard was renewed and the steering wheel was made more ergonomic. In 1971, the cabin ceiling was covered with vinyl as the fashion of the day. This design remained as the MkI type until April 1972. The A1971 model, which was developed for the Mediterranean Games held in Izmir in 1, was named “Anadol Akdeniz” and the production of this model started in 1972. In this model, called MkII, the round shape of the headlights has been replaced by rectangular headlights, the gear block and bumpers have been renewed. In the new design, the bumpers have become an extension of the body, the front grille has been changed, the headlights and signals have been made rectangular, the turn signals and taillights have taken a triangular shape. The interior of the cabin has also undergone a serious change, the instrument panel, front console, seats have been changed, and the quality of the materials used has been increased. Used in Anadol's Coupé from 1972, this standard remained the same until the end of A1 production (1975).
Anadol / A2 / SL (1970-1981)
Although the Anadol A2 series is Turkey's first 4-door car, it made history as the world's first 4-door sedan car with a completely fiberglass body. A1969, whose prototype was developed in 2, was produced and released to the market in 1970.
Ford Cortina's 2cc Kent engine was used in the A1300 series. Known for their one-piece front seat, these first A2 models were technically the same as the A1 models. The MkI type, which was produced in small numbers, remained the same as the A1972 from 1 and the A2 (nose, grille, headlights and turn signals) produced as the MkII until the end of 1975. From 1976 the SL model was launched as the new A2 version. The most significant changes to the SL were in the headlights and taillights. The interior of the A2, which has gained a new look with its rectangular rear lights, has also been completely renewed, as well as the new instrument panel, front console and the materials used in the cabin. In addition, the A2 is the first Turkish car to be subjected to a crash test in order to increase the safety of the vehicle. Although the A2 was designed as a family car, it also made a big splash commercially, reaching a sales performance of 35.668 units, making it the best-selling Anadol model (2 units between 1970-1975 as A20.267, 2 units between 1976-1981 as A15.401 SL). Production of the A2 ended in 1981, and the A8-16 model began to be produced in its place.
Anadol / A4 / STC-16 (1973-1975)
The first prototype was developed in 1972, the STC-16 was only produced between 1973 and 1975. STC-16 was designed by Eralp Noyan. Thus, after the Revolution (automobile) designed in 1961, it received the title of the first automobile designed and produced and mass produced in Turkey.
Erdoğan Gönül, who became the General Manager of Otosan in 1971 and Vehbi Koç's son-in-law, convinced the Otosan management and got approval for mass production. STC-16 aimed to provide prestige to high-income users and to the Anadol brand in international rallies. Drawn by a team led by Eralp Noyan, a graduate of the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Belgium, the STC-16 is inspired by the popular sports car models Datsun 240Z, Saab Sonett, Aston Martin, Ginetta & Marcos at that time. . Eralp Noyan, interior and exterior design characteristics of the vehicle II. STC-16 was put on the production line with the A4 code, shortened and modified Anadol chassis and suspension system and a 1600cc Ford Mexico engine were used. As the transmission, the transmissions of the British Ford Cortina and Capri models with high performance were used. The dashboard and dashboard of the STC-16 were no different from the popular Italian and British sports cars of those years. Apart from the kilometer and tachometer, the new details of that period, a resettable distance indicator, Lucas ammeter, Smiths oil, gasoline and temperature indicators were placed. At the end of the project development phase, which lasted for 11 months, first 3 STC-16 prototypes were prepared for test drives. Cengiz Topel airport and the Istanbul-Adapazarı section of the E-5 highway were chosen as the test areas. The first crash tests of the STC-16 were also carried out during this period.
Anadol / A5 / SV-1600 (1973-1982)
The SV-1600 rolled off the production line at the end of 1973 as the world's first 5-door estate car with a fiber-glass body, with the code A5.
The SV-4, which has a very different design and appearance from the 1600-door Anadol models, is inspired by Reliant's “Scimicar Sports-station Coupé” model. As the engine, the 5cc Ford (I-1600) Kent with 4 main bearings is equipped with a 4-cylinder OHV engine.
Many details of the vehicle bear the Bertone and Pininfarina design features of the station wagons of the period in which it was produced. As the features of the SV-1600, monochrome exterior paint and a front spoiler can be shown as a novelty in estate cars.
After a while, more luxurious versions were introduced, using two-tone exterior paint and a new interior design. Since 1976, aluminum alloy wheels, a new type of steering wheel, new design side mirrors have been used on the SV-1600s, and the exterior paint has been produced in a single color with black and white stripes on the sides. In the interior design of the vehicle, a detachable seat model has been applied in order to expand the luggage volume.
Anadol / A6 / Insect (1975-1977)
Anadol Insect was designed by Jan Nahum, who worked at Otosan Research and Development Department at that time. In the following years, Jan Nahum also served as General Manager and CEO in companies such as Otokar, Tofaş, FIAT/Italy and Petrol Ofisi. His father, Bernar Nahum, played a very important role in the establishment of the Otosan Company, the development and production of the Anadol A1 model as Koç's partner. Claude Nahum from this family has also done important work both as an Anadol A1 rally driver and in the Otosan Anadol Wankel engine project and development. Today, he is the founding partner of Kıraça Group of Companies, which also owns Karsan Automotive Industry.
Anadol Insect got off the production line in 6 with the code A1975. The insect was originally developed at the request of the Turkish Armed Forces. Although it has similarities with the Volkswagen “Buggy” model, it was produced with a different design in terms of concept and characteristic. Considering the increasing tourism potential and the increasing number of holiday villages in those years, Otosan also took into account the demand that the vehicle would receive from the public. The most important concept of the vehicle was the open top, doorless, windshield with the same slope as the hood, different instrument panel and console. The hood and glass design with the same slope inspired the SUV vehicles that emerged in the following years, and the panel and console design, which was considered ahead of its time, became a source of inspiration for the automobile design of many European manufacturers in the following years.
Anadol Insect was produced with a 1298cc and 63 HP Ford engine, and high performance was achieved due to its light and small casing. In line with the pop-art design of the period, it is unusual with its asymmetrical front and rear view, again asymmetrical front panel, 2 rear taillights on the right and 3 on the left, 5-angle rear view mirror on the windshield, 225/55/13 tires, vinyl-coated seats on fiber. had a view.
Anadol Insect has different versions according to usage and requests: There is a version with a gull wing door for TRT exterior shooting, an off-road version, a pusher/pull version and a military version.
Anadol Insect production also coincided with an unlucky period like STC-16. Both models, which were designed way ahead of their time, could not create demand due to the economic problems in the world and in Turkey caused by the oil crisis, and their production was suspended.
Between 1975 and 1977, the number of Insect models produced was only 203.
Anadol / A8 / 16 and Saloon 16 (1981-1984)
Production of the 4-door A8-16 series began in 1981. The A8-16 was inspired by the SAAB and Volvo brands. A8-16 design features pioneering details such as wide headlights, oblique nose, blunt and high rear cut.
However, the rear lights used in the Insect, which are a bit outdated compared to 1981, did not fit this innovative philosophy of the vehicle. Due to the front design of the vehicle, the A8-16 model is also known as "Baltaburun" among the people. The interior design of the cabin was also contradictory to many traditional Anadol customers. The doors, glass and frames of the SV-1973, designed in 1600, were also used in the A8-16, giving potential buyers the feeling of a collectible despite its new lines.
Although the high-performance 1981 Pinto E-Max engine was used in the 1982 and 1.6 productions, it was not enough to give this vehicle an allure. As such, the old Ford (I-1983) Kent, 1984 cylinder OHV, 16cc engine with 4 main bearings was used again in Saloon 4, which was put on the production line in 5 and 1600 in order to reduce production costs.
The A8-16 model was produced in the years 1981-1984 only 1.013.
Anadol Pickup Truck (1971-1991)
The first study on the Anadol pickup truck started in 1970. In fact, the idea of producing the first pickup truck came about when an Anadol A1 was modified in the Otosan factory to carry materials. Bernar Nahum saw this vehicle while walking around the parts of the factory, and although he did not like its appearance, he came up with the idea that such a vehicle could be used in light commercial transportation.
At that time, the development of domestic trade in the first years of industrialization and opening up started to increase the interest of small tradesmen in pick-ups, especially in light cargo transportation. Thereupon, work was started in the fiberglass workshop, and first some pickup trucks with a monolithic fiberglass body (cabin and body) were built. However, due to the impracticality of the production and use of this vehicle, the production of a fiber cupped pickup truck with a hair box was started. Anadol pickup trucks, which started mass production in 1971, were launched as Otosan 2 with the P500 code and equipped with a 1300cc gasoline engine. Starting from 1980, together with the 1300cc gasoline engine, the 1200cc Erk diesel engine started to be used in production. Later, the 1600 cc Ford OHC gasoline engine, which was also used in Ford Taunus, was used with a double throat Weber carburetor. In addition, the interior of the vehicle has been redesigned and it has been given a very modern console for its period. Although the parts were made of plastic, it could have been considered a luxury for a pickup truck in those years. The front panel indicators were replaced with Endiksan instead of Smith, and the numbers on the indicators were changed from yellow to white. Heating control rods are also placed vertically, not horizontally. The steering wheel has also been renewed, and the deer emblem in the middle of the steering wheel has been enlarged. The same emblem is also located on the plastic flap in the middle of the rims. Models after 83 were released as P2 Otosan 600D and are equipped with a 4-cylinder, flat, overhead cam 1900 cc ERK diesel engine. The form of the front hood has also been changed, and the groove line on the hood has left its place to a bulging form.
Anadol pickups produced 1971 units from 1991 to 36.892 with minor design changes.
Many public institutions such as PTT have served with Anadol pick-up for years. However, the demand for the Anadol pickup truck has increased so much that at the point where the demand was not met, the period of converting the A2 models into pickup trucks began. In this period, which was supported by the legislation with the amendment of the license, thousands of Anadol cars were converted into pickup trucks and hit the road.
Even today, Hmong vans in almost every corner of Turkey continues to serve.