In accordance with the railway load transfer model, the parts that are laid at certain intervals perpendicular to the rails, which transmit the forces acting on the rail to the ballast layer by meeting and spreading on a wider surface, detecting and protecting the opening of the road and keeping the road on its axis against side effects, are called sleepers.
Railway sleepers used in railway systems, axle weight, speed, technological developments in towing and towing vehicles and so on. the progress in the elements and the materials used in the production of traverse were in parallel with the problems of adaptation to these advances and the cost considerations.
Traverses used in rail systems are divided into four:
- Wooden sleepers,
- Iron sleepers,
- Reinforced concrete sleepers,
- Plastic sleepers.
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