How Does The Body React If The Thyroid Gland Is Working Too Little or Too Much?

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Inability to lose weight, weakness, depression and excessive sleep... The common point of these seemingly unrelated health problems is the thyroid gland in our neck, which weighs 25-40 grams and looks like a butterfly.

Hormones secreted from this gland; It regulates many vital functions from breathing to heart rate, from the central nervous system to muscle strength, body temperature and cholesterol levels. However, Acıbadem Ataşehir Medical Center Internal Medicine Specialist Dr. Deniz Şimşek said, “Some patients get more tests than necessary, and some do not go to check-ups even though they should be followed up. However, in cases where the thyroid glands work more or less, zamWith its immediate detection, it is possible to prevent very serious health problems.” Internal Medicine Specialist Dr. Deniz Şimşek gave important warnings and suggestions about thyroid diseases.

Watch out for iodine deficiency!

The thyroid gland, which regulates all the functions in our body from the hair of our hair to the tip of our toenails, is located in front of the trachea with its butterfly-like shape. Despite its small size, the thyroid gland, which plays a key role for our body with the hormones it secretes, secretes the T3 and T4 hormones that regulate the body's metabolism. Acıbadem Ataşehir Medical Center Internal Medicine Specialist Dr. Deniz Şimşek, “The pituitary gland in the brain sends the hormone TSH for the production of T3 and T4. However, these two hormones cannot be produced without iodine. In order for thyroid hormones to be produced, sufficient iodine must be taken into the body. Iodine deficiency; It occurs due to the use of non-iodized salt, some drugs used, or more influx of minerals that affect absorption into our body. Thyroid functions return to normal when the iodine deficiency is eliminated.

If the thyroid gland is overworked!

An elevated level of thyroid hormone in the blood is defined as 'hyperthyroidism'. Although TSH hormone is low, T3 and T4 production is high. Dr. Deniz Şimşek stated that this situation also causes complaints such as palpitations, excessive sweating, insomnia, weight loss, tremors in the hands and nervousness. Either a hormone-secreting thyroid nodule or Graves' disease, popularly known as toxic goiter, is seen. As with Hashimoto's disease, the cause of Graves' is unknown. In addition to excess thyroid hormone, goiter and protruding eyes are among the symptoms. There are different treatment options such as radioactive iodine, medication or surgery, which vary according to age, whether there is a pregnancy plan, whether there is a recurrence or not.

If the thyroid gland is underactive!

The inability of the thyroid gland to produce enough hormones is defined as 'hypothyroidism'. Noting that this situation is manifested by low T4 and T3 levels despite the high TSH value in blood tests, Dr. Deniz Şimşek lists the accompanying complaints as “inability to lose weight despite efforts to gain or lose weight, weakness, depression, chills, constipation, menstrual irregularity, excessive sleepiness”. Stating that hypothyroidism often develops due to iodine deficiency and Hashimoto's disease, Dr. Deniz Şimşek explains Hashimoto: “Hashimoto, an autoimmune health problem, is a disease of unknown cause. It is thought to develop due to stress and certain foods. In Hashimoto, the immune system sees the thyroid gland as the enemy and attacks it. AntiTPO antibody in the blood indicates that this attack has started. Even if TSH, T3 and T4 hormone levels are normal, if antiTPO antibody is detected, the person is considered a Hashimoto patient.”

Take your medicine in the morning on an empty stomach

Stating that to eliminate iodine deficiency in Hashimoto patients caught at this level, selenium mineral supplements are used to prevent iodine and antiTPO attacks. Deniz Şimşek also notes that the consumption of gluten and dairy products can be limited for a while. Explaining that in this way, hormone levels are checked at regular intervals and starting external supplements is delayed as much as possible, Dr. Deniz Şimşek said, “However, there is no point in following the antibody level when the thyroid gland can no longer function. For normal body functions, it is necessary to take hormone supplements from outside. Emphasizing that you should not hesitate to use this drug, Dr. Deniz Şimşek said, “Take it in the morning on an empty stomach, and have your hormone levels monitored regularly. Never stop taking your medicine when you have another disease, when you need to use another medicine or if you are pregnant.

If your hormones are normal, there is no need for goiter treatment.

A larger than normal thyroid gland is called a goiter. Stating that thyroid ultrasonography, hormone tests and iodine measurement are required for diagnosis, Dr. Deniz Şimşek explains the treatment methods, “If your hormones are normal, if there is no iodine deficiency, it does not cause complaints, no treatment is required. However, the thyroid gland becomes very large; Surgery can be applied if it causes breathing or swallowing problems or if it disturbs the person aesthetically.

Low risk of cancer in thyroid nodule

Thyroid nodules are defined as potato-shaped local growths that develop in the thyroid gland. Stating that some nodules are filled with liquid and some are hard, Dr. Deniz Şimşek, “Even if there are nodules, the thyroid gland can be of normal size, so nodules do not need to be accompanied by goiter. Studies have shown that nodules do not shrink with drug treatment. Therefore, if there is no hormonal disorder, it is unnecessary to use drugs in nodules. Noting that the probability of developing cancer from thyroid nodules is low, Dr. Deniz Şimşek explains that biopsy decision can be made if there are findings such as “male gender, single nodule, hard nodule, rapidly growing and irregular margin-microcalcification (calcification) in ultrasonography”.

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