Dietician Salih Gürel gave important information about the subject. Inadequate and unbalanced nutrition during pregnancy, which is one of the special periods in which nutritional needs increase, negatively affects maternal and fetal health. Poor pregnancy outcomes increase in cases where mothers are severely malnourished.
In babies born to malnourished mothers, various adversities can be observed, and the fetus that develops in the womb of the mother takes the necessary materials from the mother's blood, whether the mother's nutrients are sufficient or not. The mother can sometimes obtain these substances by destroying her own tissues.
In pregnant women, daily oral supplementation of 30 mg to 60 mg of elemental iron and 0.4 mg of folic acid is recommended to prevent maternal anemia, puerperal sepsis, the risk of low birth weight infants and preterm birth. (1.5 - 2 g oral elemental calcium) is recommended. For pregnant women with high daily caffeine intake (more than 300 mg per day), it is recommended to reduce caffeine intake to prevent infant losses and low birth weight. Choline is an important micronutrient during pregnancy as its transmission from mother to fetus is high. The lack of maternal intake of choline can affect normal fetal brain development, although this mineral is present in many foods, most pregnant women cannot meet their daily choline needs of 450 mg.
Essential fatty acids should be taken in sufficient amounts during pregnancy. The recommended amount of omega-3 fatty acids during pregnancy is 1.4 g, and the amount of omega-6 fatty acids is 13 g.
Alcohol consumption during pregnancy negatively affects the development of the fetus and fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) disease is observed in the baby. Children with fetal alcohol syndrome have abnormalities in the eyes, nose, heart and central nervous system, retardation in growth, small head circumference and mental retardation. Alcohol consumption over two glasses per day doubles the risk of spontaneous pregnancy loss.
Pregnant and lactating women and post-menopausal women are recommended to consume 3-4 (600-800 ml) servings of milk and its derivatives a day. Adequate intake of calcium, which forms the bone structure during pregnancy, helps the development of the baby's skeletal structure and the protection of the mother's bone mass. Adequate calcium consumption during pregnancy protects the mother against the risk of osteoporosis in the later period. It is recommended by experts that at least one portion of the 4-5 portions that should be taken from the vegetable and fruit group of the pregnant woman per day should be a kind of green leafy vegetable and one portion can be eaten raw.
Weight gain during pregnancy also has a great impact on infant health. In a study examining the weight of the mother and the development of asthma in the future life of the baby, the risk of asthma was found to be higher in children born to obese mothers compared to children born to normal weight mothers. It should be tried to keep the mother's weight under control by providing adequate and balanced nutrition during pregnancy. During pregnancy, a woman of normal weight is asked to gain an average of one kilogram per month. A woman who is overweight at the beginning of pregnancy does not need to gain much weight.