Stating that 10 out of every 3 people with tuberculosis could not receive treatment because they were not diagnosed, Assoc from Medical Park Gebze Hospital Thoracic Surgery Department. Dr. Hatice Eryiğit Ünaldı said, “Every year 10 million new TB patients emerge around the world. Malnutrition, smoking, diabetes, HIV infection are risk factors for tuberculosis. In 2019, one person died every 22 seconds due to tuberculosis, ”he said.
Pointing out that tuberculosis is still an active disease in the world, Associate Professor of Thoracic Surgery, Medical Park Gebze Hospital. Dr. Hatice Eryiğit Ünaldı emphasized that BCG vaccine should be made in order to be protected from the disease and said, “The vaccine is both protective and provides a slight overcoming of the disease. In our country, 'Tuberculosis Education and Awareness Week' has been celebrated since 1947. The aim of this week is to raise awareness of the society about the fight against tuberculosis, ”he said.
Noting that tuberculosis, also known as tuberculosis, is a respiratory disease, Assoc. Dr. Hatice Eryiğit Ünaldı continued as follows: “The microbe that reaches the lung either remains as a silent infection or causes disease. Silent infection can cause illness in future days or years. Although this disease mostly affects the lungs, it is also seen in other tissues and organs. It is a treatable disease. Medicines are provided free of charge through Tuberculosis Dispensaries. "
"Watch out for coughing, spitting blood and night sweats"
Assoc. Dr. Hatice Eryiğit Ünaldı stated that the complications that develop during and after TB disease may require thoracic surgery. Assoc. Dr. Hatice Eryiğit Ünaldı listed the complaints caused by the disease as follows:
“Tuberculosis may cause complaints such as prolonged cough, coughing up blood, night sweats, and shortness of breath. In the diagnosis, the presence of germs in the sputum, chest radiography and tomography should be performed, and if necessary, surgical procedure for tissue diagnosis. Antibiotics effective against bacteria named 'Myocobacterium tuberculosis' are used for treatment.
"Confused with lung cancer"
Pointing out that tuberculosis may be confused with lung cancer due to its presence in the form of nodules, masses, and cavities (development of a cavity in the lung), Assoc. Dr. Hatice Eryiğit Ünaldı said, “The tissue is removed with an interventional procedure and the diagnosis is made by pathological examination. "The cavities formed in some patients may not regress despite drug treatment, in these cases this tissue should be removed by surgery".
"Rib cage is controlled by video assisted system"
Adding that if fluid collects in the chest, the patient may have severe shortness of breath, Assoc. Dr. Hatice Eryiğit Ünaldı said, “In undiagnosed patients, the inside of the rib cage is checked with a video-assisted system, and pleural biopsy is performed from both the drainage of the fluid and the diseased pleural membrane. If the patient is diagnosed, the fluid is drained only with the help of a catheter ”.
"Surgery depends on the damage condition"
Underlining that situations requiring emergency surgical intervention such as pulmonary collapse after tuberculosis, Assoc. Dr. Hatice Eryiğit Ünaldı explained the procedures to be done in this situation as follows:
“First, the air outside the lung is evacuated with the catheter. If it is not enough, the diseased part is surgically removed. After years of tuberculosis, enlargement of the airways called 'bronchiectasis' may occur. Pulmonary surgery should be performed depending on the prevalence of bronchiectasis and the patient's complaint (plenty of dark sputum or coughing up blood, frequent antibiotics). The extent of the operation depends on the damage in the lung. "
"Annual lung checks are important"
Noting that scars may occur in the lungs due to tuberculosis, Assoc. Dr. Hatice Eryiğit Ünaldı said, “There is a risk of developing lung cancer on these sequelae. Treatment planning is made according to the stage of the cancer. Surgical treatment of lung cancer is not different from other patients. Having tuberculosis does not create an obstacle to surgery. In patients with tuberculosis, annual checks of the lungs are especially important, ”he said.