Gastritis is an inflammation of the lining of the stomach called gastric mucosa. The stomach acts as a buffer for the food eaten. Food is mixed in the stomach and digested with acidic gastric juice. Digestive enzymes are also secreted in the stomach, which break down dietary proteins. Gastric juice is produced from a large number of glands in the gastric mucosa. The gastric mucosa produces a thin viscous mucus that covers the inner surface of the stomach from its specialized cells to protect it from the strongly acidic effect of gastric juice. Various factors; This can attack the protective mucus layer or cause too much stomach acid production. As a result, gastritis occurs. Gastritis often presents with symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, and heartburn. It is not a serious disease and can be easily treated with proper nutrition and medication. What is gastritis? What causes gastritis? What are the symptoms of gastritis? Acute gastritis symptoms chronic gastritis symptoms What is antral gastritis? What is chronic gastritis? How is gastritis diagnosed? How about gastritis treatment? Gastritis diet What are the foods that are good and not good for gastritis? all of them in the rest of the news ...
What is Gastritis?
Gastritis is the inflammation of the lining of the stomach lining. It occurs when too much stomach acid is produced or the inner protective layer of the stomach wall is damaged. Excess stomach acid comes into direct contact with the gastric mucosa and damages the cells there.
In general, it has two forms, acute and chronic gastritis. If it occurs suddenly, it is called acute, if it develops over a longer period it is called chronic gastritis. Acute gastritis is characterized by severe pain in the stomach and back, nausea, vomiting, and anorexia. Chronic gastritis usually does not cause any symptoms or only shows mild symptoms such as upper abdominal discomfort, indigestion, bloating, and a feeling of fullness after meals.
The most common cause of gastritis is infections caused by bacteria called Helicobacter pylori. Other causes of gastritis include:
- Excessive alcohol consumption
- Long-term use of drugs such as aspirin and ibuprofen, known as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
- Physical stress: The person has a serious illness, major operations, serious injuries and burns
- Mental stress
- Various bacteria, viruses or fungi infections
- Food allergies
- Radiation therapy
- Advanced age
- Food poisoning
- The immune system attacking its own body cells: In this case, the disease is called autoimmune or type A gastritis.
What are the Symptoms of Gastritis?
Gastritis symptoms can occur differently in each patient. Some patients may not have any symptoms. Symptoms of acute and chronic gastritis are different.
Acute Gastritis Symptoms
Sudden abdominal pain is typical for acute gastritis. Pain is increased when the painful area is pressed manually. Some of the other symptoms seen in acute gastritis;
- Back pain
- Nausea, vomiting
- Continuous burping
- A feeling of fullness in the abdomen
- Bloody or coffee grounds vomiting
- Blood or black stools
- Heartburn can be listed as such.
Chronic Gastritis Symptoms
Most patients with chronic gastritis do not feel any symptoms for a long period of time. Some patients experience mild symptoms such as bloating, fullness and belching. But if left untreated, in the long run; It may predispose to diseases such as stomach ulcer, duodenal ulcer or stomach cancer.
What is Antral Gastritis?
Gastritis, according to its localization in the stomach;
- Antral gastritis
- It is classified as corpus gastritis.
Gastritis, which is seen in the section just before the exit of the stomach called antrum, is called antral gastritis. Antral gastritis can occur in acute or chronic form, and its symptoms are shaped accordingly. It is the most common form of gastritis, and 80% of all gastritis occurs in this type. The cause of antral gastritis is usually Helicobacter pylori bacteria.
What is Chronic Gastritis?
The frequently recurrent or prolonged inflammatory condition of the stomach lining is called chronic gastritis. Chronic gastritis is usually asymptomatic or only causes a mild discomfort with complaints such as belching or bloating after meals. Chronic gastritis occurs for different reasons and is classified as type A, B or C according to the causes:
1) Type A gastritis (Autoimmune gastritis): It is a type of chronic gastritis that occurs as a result of the body's immune system attacking the stomach mucosa cells.
2) B-type gastritis (Bacterial gastritis): It is a type of chronic gastritis that occurs due to bacterial infections. Helicobacter Pylori is the bacterium responsible for most of this group of gastritis.
3) Type C Gastritis: It is caused by chemical or toxic substance irritation. It usually develops due to long-term drug use. Other triggers for type C gastritis other than medications are excessive alcohol consumption or, rarely, a condition called biliary reflux. Biliary reflux is a condition in which bile fluid leaks back into the stomach from the duodenum.
How Is Gastritis Diagnosed?
A detailed history is taken from the patient for diagnosis. The patient's complaints, medical history, medications, eating habits, alcohol and cigarette use are questioned in detail. Then a physical examination is done. In the physical examination, it is examined whether there are signs of pain that increases with touch in the abdominal region. Later, the upper abdomen is examined by ultrasonography. X-ray film is taken only if there is a suspicion of perforation in the stomach. Endoscopy examination is required for definitive diagnosis. Endoscopy is performed by entering the mouth with a tube-shaped device with a light camera at the end and examining the stomach. If necessary, tissue sample is taken from the stomach during endoscopy.
Blood tests can be done to detect inflammation and pathogens in the body. For example, if there is autoimmune gastritis, antibodies against components of stomach cells can be detected in the blood. Stool examination can also be done. Blood is detected in the stool in bleeding due to gastritis.
How Is Gastritis Treatment?
Gastritis can usually be treated with changes in habits and nutritional measures without the need for any drug therapy. When these changes are not enough, various drugs are used in treatment.
- The first step in treating gastritis is to stay away from anything that irritates the stomach lining. Therefore, coffee, alcohol and smoking should be quit.
- If symptoms are severe, it may be beneficial not to eat for a day or two. As a rule, loss of appetite occurs during periods of exacerbation of gastritis.
- If the symptoms are slightly milder, easily digestible light foods should be consumed in small meals.
- In cases of gastritis triggered by stress, relaxation methods such as meditation or progressive muscle relaxation may be helpful.
Drugs such as stomach acid suppressing antacids, proton pump inhibitors, H2 receptor blockers are used in the treatment of gastritis. Antibiotic treatment is started in cases caused by Helicobacter pylori and other bacteria. Chronic autoimmune gastritis is often accompanied by vitamin B12 deficiency. For this reason, vitamin B12 injections are also used in the treatment of autoimmune gastritis.
Diet is an important part of gastritis treatment. It is recommended to regularly consume foods that destroy Helicobacter pylori bacteria in the gastritis diet. For this purpose, probiotics such as homemade yogurt, sauerkraut and tarhana can be consumed. With the ingredients in broccoli, garlic has a broad spectrum antibacterial property and has a lethal effect on Helicobacter pylori. Additionally, research has found that ginger, apple cider vinegar, turmeric, thyme cranberry juice, pineapple, green tea, carrot, and beet juice both cure gastritis and alleviate symptoms such as nausea, stomach pain, burning, bloating and heartburn.
What Are Foods That Are Good for Gastritis and Which Are Not Good?
Among the foods and drinks that are good for gastritis;
- Fresh fruits and vegetables
- High-fiber foods such as apples, oatmeal, broccoli, carrots, and beans
- Whole grains
- Coconut oil
- Low-fat foods such as fish, chicken, and turkey breast
- There are probiotics like tarhana, homemade yogurt, and sauerkraut.
Some of the foods and drinks that trigger gastritis;
- Acidic foods such as tomatoes
- All types of processed food
- Foods and beverages with high fat and sugar content
- Food and drinks containing artificial sweeteners
- Excessively spicy foods
- It can be listed as frozen foods.