Alexander Graham Bell (born March 3, 1847, Edinburgh, Scotland - d. August 2, 1922, Baddeck, Canada), Scottish scientist known for the invention of the telephone.
The invention of the telephone
Graham Bell, who invented the telephone, was actually trying to break the silence of the deaf. He failed to do this, but the phone, which had a new feature every day, made it possible for people miles away from each other to hear each other. Graham Bell's mother was born deaf. His grandfather and father devoted their years to the hearing impaired. In particular, his father tried to develop ways of teaching people to speak, even if they were not hearing impaired. When his two brothers died of tuberculosis, his father immigrated to Canada for the health of his only son. After the death of her father, Graham Bell struggling to promote and disseminate his work traveled to the United States. He settled first in Ontario and later in Boston. He worked here for a while at a school that trains language teachers for the hearing impaired. Then he set up his own school.
Bell, whose reputation quickly spread, was invited to Oxford University as a guest teacher. He read the book on hearing physiology of the German Hermann von Helmholtz, which he received in England. He focused on the idea that the sound of music could be transmitted through a wire. Meanwhile, other scientists were also working on these issues. In fact, Antonio Meucci had made such a device years before him, but could not patent it.
Returning from England, Bell was appointed professor of Human Voice Physiology at Boston University. He attempted to bring his theoretical knowledge to life with technical support and to make hearing impairments for the hearing impaired. He started working with an electrical engineer named Thomas Watson. Attorney Gardnier Greene Hubbart offered a helping hand when financial support was required to carry out his work. Bell and Watson discovered in 1875 that the sound traveled over the wire to another location. However, the voice was incomprehensible. On February 14, 1876, Bell and Gray applied separately to obtain a telephone patent. Bell was granted the patent he requested on March 7, 1876. While Bell, who received the patent number 174.465, was continuing his trials in the workshop, acid was poured into his pants from the battery he used to power the phone. He summoned Watson to help:
“Mr. Watson. Come here. ("Mr. Watson. Come here. I want to see you.")
Bell made the first phone call on March 10, 1876, without realizing it while calling his assistant for help. Watson heard Bell's voice over the "phone." This invention, which coincides with the 100th anniversary of the USA, brought him many awards in the Hundred Years exhibition. Bell married Mabel of the Hubbart Family a year later, for whom she received financial and moral support to carry out her scientific studies.
His wife had been deaf since the age of four. He had a deep affection for Mabel, whom he knew as a Bell student and later married. Despite its growing reputation, no zammoment did not ignore neither his wife nor the hearing impaired. In a letter he wrote to his wife, “Whatever point your spouse reaches, no matter how rich he / she is, make sure that the hearing impaired and their problems are zamHe will think at the moment ”.
Most of his works, which remain in the shadow of his prominent discoveries today, were on hearing impairment. He was able to record sounds that his deaf mother and wife could not hear. Alexander Graham Bell, who still works for the deaf, spent the money he earned from the "Gramophone" to the Institution for the Hearing Impaired. The government of France gave honors and monetary awards for its service to humanity. He used the money to found the Volta Institute for the Deaf in Washington. To develop the first handset, Bell fought a legal battle against Gray, who sued him while trying to tackle technical issues. The phone was able to leave the workshop in 4 years. In 1880, Tainer, who helped Bell, tried a device they called the radio.
Climbing to the top of a school, Tainer called Bell, whom he could see from far away, “Mr. Bell. Mr. Bell. If you can hear me, please come to the window and shake your hat. " When Bell shook his hat, the phone started to crawl after birth. Eight years later, the state of Connecticut became the first city to have a telephone network.
Phone year as it is close to the value and power plants in Turkey were carried out by officers through. After a while, the tradition of working female officers instead of male officers started at the power plants. Emma Nutt, who started working in Boston, was the first female switchboard officer.
"Magneto phone" talks, which were used to laugh in some black and white films, turned towards automation in 1899 with the contribution of a man named Almon B. Stowger. Oddly enough, Stowger was a funeral shopkeeper, not a telephone man. His opponent's wife was working in the telephone company. Those who were looking for Strowger for funeral work were tied to his wife. Rolling up his sleeves to find a solution in this difficult situation, Strowger succeeded in building an automatic exchange. People called the new phone "girlless phone".
It was in a form unlike today's phones. There were three keys on it, representing the ones, tens, hundreds. The number to be connected was provided by pressing the keys as much as the value of the digit in the dialed number. It also caused confusion as the caller was often surprised how many times he pressed the key. The solution for this was soon found.
Telephone poles and cable lines soon covered the streets of New York like a spider web. A telephone pole on the streets that had become inaccessible was carrying 50 cross boards holding the cables. The phone started to enter daily life in different ways.
In an advertisement given to newspapers published in those years, the phone was introduced as follows:
"Conversation. Talking word-of-mouth on the phone is much more comfortable. "
Bell opened the first long intercity telephone line linking New York to San Francisco in 1915. Against him was his assistant Watson. Despite all these years, Bell has not forgotten the first day. "Watson I want you, come here," he said to Watson.
A fierce war has started between hotels that want to attract customers by using the facilities of the phone. Hotels started to listen to their customers sitting in their lobbies with the telephone "Theaterfon" line, which was connected to famous music, theater, opera and concert halls. This spread to homes and businesses.
Although Graham Bell was mentioned in memories as the finder of the telephone, there were also studies whose name did not come forward. One of them was the director of the National Geographic magazine, which was followed by the whole world with great interest. The telephone probe, which was used for the first time in determining the location of the bullets in the body of US President Garfield, who was attacked and seriously injured one hundred and twenty years ago, was used to improve the diagnosis with X-rays by Röntgen. He realized projects for sea and air transportation.
A writer who penned the developments regarding the telephone in 1893, expressed his observation as follows: "After a while, humanity will be able to see the artists and singers we can hear now."
Although these words are interpreted as “television” longing, the developing technology indicates mobile phones with video and live broadcast communication over the Internet. Inspired by the movie "Star Trek", science fiction lovers discuss the days that people will get from teleporting, not seeing or hearing the event in another place on the screens in three dimensions, but by feeling ...
The red "bell" was used to symbolize the telephone, based on his surname, out of great respect and love for Bell, who gifted an invention that eliminates the deafness of the human world as a result of the struggle against the hearing impairment.
- US Patent 161.739 Development of receivers and senders of electrical telegrams, registration March 1875, registration April 1875 (multiplexing signals on a single wire)
- US Patent 174.465 Development on Telegraph, registration February 14, 1876, registration March 7, 1876 (Bell's first telephone patent)
- US Patent 178.399 Development of telephonic telegraph receivers, registration April 1876, registered June 1876
- US Patent 181.553 Development in electric current generation (using rotating permanent magnets), registration August 1876, registered August 1876
- US Patent 186.787 Electric telegraph (Permanent magnetic receiver), registration January 15, 1877, registration January 30, 1877
- US Patent 235.199 Devices for signaling and communication, name Photophone, registration August 1880, registered December 1880
- US Patent 757.012 Aircraft, June 1903 registration, April 1904 registration