The Trans-Siberian Railway is the railway connecting Western Russia with Siberia to Far East Russia, Mongolia, China and the Sea of Japan. It is the longest railway in the world with a length of 9288 km from Moscow to Vladivostok.
It was built between 1891 and 1916. The amount spent on the construction of the railway between 1891 and 1913 amounted to 1.455.413.000 rubles.
- Moscow (0 km, Moscow Time) Most trains start from Yaroslavski train station.
- Vladimir (210 km, Moscow Time)
- Gorky (461 km, Moscow Time)
- Kirov (917 km, Moscow Time)
- Perm (1397 km, Moscow Time +2)
- The imaginary border crossing between Europe and Asia. It is marked with an obelisk. (1777 km, Moscow Time +2)
- Yekaterinburg (1778 km, Moscow Time +2)
- Tyumen (2104 km, Moscow Time +2)
- Omsk (2676 km, Moscow Time +3)
- Novosibirsk (3303 km, Moscow Time +3)
- Krasnoyarsk (4065 km, Moscow Time +4)
- Irkutsk (5153 km, Moscow Time +4)
- Sljudyanka 1 (5279 km, Moscow Time +5)
- Ulan-Ude (5609 km, Moscow Time +5)
- It is the intersection point with the Trans Mongolia line. (5655 km,)
- Cheetah (6166 km, Moscow Time +6)
- It is the intersection point with the Trans Manchuria line. (6312 km,)
- Birobidyan (8320 km, Moscow Time +7)
- Khabarovsk (8493 km, Moscow Time +7)
- It is the intersection point with the Trans Korea line. (9200 km,)
- Vladivostok (9289 km, +7 Moscow Time)
The craving for a port on Russia's long-standing Pacific coast was realized in 1880 with the establishment of the city of Vladivostok. Establishing the connection of this port with the capital and distributing the underground and aboveground resources of Siberia constitute the missing links of this longing. In 1891, Tsar III. With the approval of Aleksandr, the Minister of Transport, Sergei Witte, prepared the Trans Siberian railway plans and started the construction. In addition, it directed all the opportunities and investments of the state to the region for industrial development. After the death of the tsar 3 years later, his son, tsar II. Nikolai continued to invest and support the railway. Despite the enormous size of the project, the entire route was completely completed in 1905. On October 29, 1905, for the first time, passenger trains reached the Pacific Ocean (port of Vladivostok) from the Atlantic Ocean (Western Europe) without being transported by ferry on rails. Thus, the railway was raised just one year before the Russian - Japanese War. The railway was opened in 1916 with its current route, including the challenging route around Lake Baikal and the Manchurian line, with its dangerous location in the north replaced with its new route.
The Trans-Siberian Railway has formed an important trade and transportation line between Siberia and the rest of the vast territory of Russia. The transfer of Siberian underground and surface resources, especially grain, provided important resources for the Russian economy.
However, the Trans-Siberian Railway also had far more extensive and long-term effects. Undoubtedly, this will affect the military power of Russia, as well as the contribution of the railway line to the economy of Russia. In addition, a solidarity treaty was signed between Russia and France in 1894. Both countries have promised to support each other in an attack by Germany or allies. The rapprochement that this treaty will bring between the two countries, especially the acceleration of French investments in Russia, is inevitable.
Both the Trans-Siberian Railway and the Russia-France treaty have prompted England to worry about their interests in the Far East. The expansion policy of Russia, which will develop a stronger army, seems to be inevitable. Similar concerns live in Japan. The spread of Russia in the direction of China will create a threat area that includes Manchuria, Japan's most vulnerable to an external attack. In addition, the port of Viladivostok has also become an important naval base for Russia.
Both sides' concerns have resulted in an agreement between Japan and the UK in 1902. The Treaty mainly aims to preserve the existing status quo in the Far East. According to the treaty, in the case of an external attack that threatens the position of one of the states, the other state will remain neutral. However, when another international power supports the offensive party, the other state will intervene.
This treaty, which took place at the very beginning of the 20th century, is a clear indication that the British Empire has maintained its status quo worldwide and now needs and starts to need alliances. It can also be seen as one of the first signs of the British Empire's collapse.