The Versailles Peace Treaty is the peace treaty signed between the Entente States and Germany at the end of the First World War. It was negotiated at the Paris Peace Conference that started on January 18, 1919, the last text was declared to the Germans on May 7, 1919, it was accepted by the German Parliament on June 23, and signed on the Versailles suburb of Paris on June 28.
Due to the harsh conditions it contained, the Treaty of Versailles caused a great reaction in Germany and was accepted as "betrayal". Many historians experienced the economic and political instability in Germany in the 1920s, the Nazi Party's coming to power and II. He thinks that the World War was ultimately caused by the Treaty of Versailles.
Preparation of the Versailles Peace Treaty
In October 1918, the German government declared that the then President of the USA, Woodrow Wilson, accepted the fourteen articles that he had proposed for a fair peace, and asked the President to make an attempt to reach a treaty in this framework. Nine articles of these fourteen articles are related to new land regulations. However, in the last year of the war, secret treaties signed between Britain, France and Italy, and between these countries and Romania and Greece required a different land regulation.
The British Prime Minister David Lloyd George, known as the “Big Three” at the Paris Peace Conference, French Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau and Italian Prime Minister Vittorio Emanuele Orlando were active and the articles of the Treaty of Versailles were drafted. Although the disagreement between this draft and the guarantees given during the ceasefire negotiations was protested by the German delegation, the German Parliament approved the terms of the treaty on 9 July 1919 because there was no blockade on Germany and nothing else to do.
In general terms, the Treaty of Versailles, which came into force on January 10, 1920, was destroying Germany founded by Bismarck (Bismark) and established a new European order. Germany, Alsace-Loren to France, Eupen (Öpen), Malmedy (Malmedi) and Monschau (Mono) to Belgium, Memel (today Klaipeda) to newly established Lithuania, Upper Silesia. it left the southern tip and much of West Prussia to Poland and part of Upper Silesia to Czechoslovakia. Danzig (today Gdansk) became a free city and was left under the auspices of the League of Nations. The Saar (Sar) region will be left to France, and the main fate of the region will be determined by a popular vote that will be held fifteen years later. Germany would demolish existing fortifications on the Rhine coast and Helgoland. In addition, in 1920, the plebisite would be made in the Schleswig part of the Schleswig Holstein region. While the result of this plebicide remains in Central Schleswig Germany; Northern Schleswig (South Jutland), consisting of Apenrade (Aabenraa), Sonderburg (Sonderborg), Hadersleben (Haderslev) districts, all of Tondern (Tønder) and northern districts of Flensburg, was transferred to Denmark. On June 15, 1920, Germany officially handed over North Schleswig to Denmark.
Germany's rights in China and the islands in the Pacific Ocean were transferred to Japan. Germany is committed to not merging with Austria; it also recognized the independence of Austria, Czechoslovakia and Poland. The neutrality of Belgium, whose impartiality was violated in the war, was also removed, and Germany accepted it.
Germany abolished compulsory military service and had the authority to hold an army of 100 thousand people at most. In addition, Germany would not be able to produce submarines and planes. He would deliver all his ships to the Entente States. Germany was also held liable for war compensation far beyond its ability to pay. Germany was under heavy economic and political obligations. Many Germans remained within the borders of the newly established states. As a natural consequence of this situation, the issue of minority arose with the implementation of the Peace Treaty.
Treaty of Versailles
- Alsace Loren will be given to France.
- The political alliance between Germany and Austria will be banned forever.
- The German army will be removed and its structure will be changed.
- Germany will waive all sea lands.
- Germany will leave most of its territory to Czechoslovakia, Belgium and Poland.
- Germany will agree to pay war compensation.
- Germany will not be able to manufacture submarines. Also, the aircraft will not be able to produce.
- The neutrality of Belgium will disappear. In addition, Germany will be obliged to recognize the neutrality of Belgium.
- There will be no union of Germany and Austria.
- Compulsory military service will disappear in Germany.
- The German navy will be shared among the Entente states.
- Saar region will be left to France.
- Dantzig will be a free city. The protection of the city of Dantzig will also belong to the House of Nations.
- Germany will not be able to carry out any military activities for 50 kilometers east and west of the Rhine.
- Germany will deliver 10 million tons of coal mines to France in 7 years.