Uludag, Bursa province within the borders of 2.543 m altitude with mountains and nature of Turkey's largest winter sports center. Uludag; It is the highest mountain in the Marmara Region. The length of Uludağ, extending in the northwest-southeast direction, reaches 40 km. Its width is 15-20 km. The slopes of this mountain, which has a collective and imposing appearance, overlooking Bursa, are gradual, and the sides facing Orhaneli to the south are flat and steeper. The highest point is Uludağ Tepe (2.543 m) located in the lakes region. When approaching Bursa from afar and in the hotels region, the high hill is generally perceived as a peak. However, the name of the hill that looks like the Summit is Monk Hill and its height is 2.486 m. Uludağ Tepe (2.543 m) It is located 5 km southeast of Monk Hill. On the north side of the mountain, there are the plateaus of Sarıalan, Kirazlı, Kadı and Sobra.
In his book Herodotus, written by Herodotus (490-420 BC), one of the earliest historians of antiquity, Uludağ is referred to as “Olympos” and tells about the tragedy of Atys, son of Lydia king Kroisos in Olympos. Geography born in Amasya, 400 years after Herodotus, Strabon (64 BC-21 BC), is referred to as Uludağ, Olympos and Mysia Olympos in his book titled Geography. Strabo; He states that the original name "Mysia" means hornbeam in the Lydia. After the official religion became Christianity in the Roman Empire, the first monasteries where monks lived in Uludag started to be built and the monasteries rose to the highest level in the 17th century. 3 monasteries have been established in the valley and hills between Nilüfer stream and Deliçay in Uludağ. Orhan Gazi received Bursa after a long siege and while some of the monasteries where the monks lived on the mountain were abandoned, some of them were replaced by the Muslim dervishes such as Doğlu Baba, Geyikli Baba and Abdal Murat. After the conquest of Bursa, the Turks named the mountain “Monk Mountain”. German traveler Reinhold Lubenau Uludağ, who came to Bursa in the 8th century, stated that after the conquest of the Turks, the monks climbed up the mountain for worship only during the day and that the monasteries were built with stone walls without using mortar. "Olympos Mysios" or "Monk Mountain" was renamed "Uludağ" in 28 with the initiatives of Bursa Province Geography Society and the proposal of Osman Şevki Bey.
A hotel and a munta in Uludağ in 1933zam The road was built, so Uludağ has become a center for winter ski sports from this date. The start of regular bus services has also increased the interest here. This road, which was later covered with asphalt, connects all settlements of Uludağ, except Kadıyayla, directly to Bursa. The modern mountain resort of Uludag, Turkey's first cable car service opened in 1963, the cableway Bursa, the fourth largest city in that it has been the center of Bursa, which is right next to the mountain and winter tourism. Uludag, Turkey's largest ski resort. The suitability of the road conditions, the presence of snow in the long winter season (October-April), its unique landscapes attract tourists here. The view of Istanbul, Marmara sea and the surrounding areas in the open air from the peak of the mountain gives this place a special feature. Hot springs were formed here due to the presence of hot springs in the eastern and northern skirts close to the Bursa Plain. These hot springs in Bursa's Çekirge district heal many diseases. The cable car was completely renovated in 2014 and extended to Kurbağakaya (Hotels) area. In addition, there are summer camps organized by the Red Crescent Society every summer in Sarıalan, the intermediate station of the cable car, and in Çobankaya, which can be reached by a chairlift from Sarıalan. The old senatorium building in Kirazlıyayla is currently used as a hotel. There are 15 private and public 12 official accommodation facilities in Uludağ. There are many chair lifts and teleski lines belonging to them.
Climate and vegetation (flora)
Traces of old glaciers are found in the high places of Uludağ. Aynalıgöl, Karagöl and Kilimligöl glacial lakes in the north of Karatepe are the most important of these traces. The white snow piles of these lakes add beauty to the beauty of these lakes. There are permanent snow layers in the northern basin under Uludağ Tepe (2543 m), the Summit of Uludağ. Turkey deploys in the most low with permanent snow.
In Uludağ, which rises around the depression areas around it, mineral and mineral vein deposits are found between the layers. Turkey's significant tungsten deposit is located here. Its climate is high mountain. Snowfall and amount increases as you go up high. Depending on the height, the temperature decreases. Over 1700 m of snow occurs in the winter from 150 cm to 400 cm at the end of February. Many streams in deep valleys originating from Uludağ reach Göksu with the Nilüfer Stream.
Uludağ is one of the rare places in terms of vegetative wealth. The awakening, which started in the lower ranks in March, continues at the summit throughout the summer. Especially on the mountain, which is located on the forest belt and known as barren by many people, rare plant species specific to this region are spreading.
- From 350 m: bay, olive, tar juniper, hazelnut, laden, heather, red pine, maquis and shrub areas
- Between 350 and 700 m: chestnut, maple, redbud, berry, wild strawberry, olive, mule, Cretan spruce, thuja, hornbeam, dogwood, hawthorn, venison, thorn, wild laurel, elm, beech, aspen, larch,
- Between 700-1000 m: chestnut, beech, sessile oak, aspen, larch, or dogwood, hawthorn, buckthorn, medlar,
- From 1000-1050 meters: beech forests reach up to 1500 meters.
- Between 1500 and 2100 m: Uludag fir, dwarf juniper, blueberry, bearberry, wild rose, deer thistle, shepherd's currant, willow, larch, beech, hornbeam, aspen, gillet, yogurt, thyme, chicory, musk onion, chicory , spring star, many-flowered poppy, wild apple.
Alpine plants, represented by scotch pine, larch juniper after 2100 m, herbaceous species up to 2300 m, are dominant among the larch forests. Oak, chestnut, sycamore, walnut trees, Mediterranean plants are found at 300-400 m, and moist forest plants are found higher up.
The climate of the mountain shows gradual changes from the lower levels to the summit. The transition type of the Black Sea climate and the Mediterranean climate at the lower levels are observed. It does not have a dry climate in the Mediterranean in summer. Towards the summit, it turns into a humid micro thermal climate type, while the harsh weather conditions are observed at high altitudes in the winter. It is located in the first family of the Eastern Mediterranean climate group. Annual average temperature decreases towards the summit and precipitation increases. The average temperature of 100 ° C annually in Bursa (14,6 m) and the annual total precipitation of 696,3 mm are 1620 ° C and 5,5 mm at the Sarıalan meteorology station (1252,1 m) on the northern slope of Uludağ, Uludağ Zirve (hotels) reaches 1877 ° C and 4,6 mm at the meteorology station (1483,6 m). Especially on the north-facing side, a climate similar to the black sea climate is observed. Orographic precipitation (slope precipitation) is observed in the summer in Sarıalan, Bakacak and Çobankaya. While 14,3% of annual precipitation falls in the summer in Sarıalan, this rate drops to 10,9% in Uludağ hotels and 10,4% in Bursa. The number of snowy days also increases towards the summit. While the number of snowy days in Bursa is 7,5 days and the number of snow-covered days is 9,4 days, the number of snowy days in Sarıalanda (1620 m) is 48,9 days and the number of days covered with snow is 109,9 days, in Uludağ hotels (1877 m ) The number of snowy days reaches 67,5 days and the number of days covered with snow reaches 179,3 days. The highest snow thickness observed in Uludağ is 430 cm. The highest snow thicknesses are generally reached in March. Snowfall can be observed in the hotels area between September and June. But mainly snowfalls begin in October and continue at intervals until May. The thickness suitable for skiing is generally reached between the dates of 25 November and 15 December, and it lasts from 15 April to 1 May depending on the precipitation. Considering the average statistical data for skiing, the average number of frosty days is 144,7 days and the number of days with the highest temperature below 0 is 54,9 days. The most suitable temperatures for skiing are observed between December and the end of March.
Uludağ is a height where glacier formations were first found in Küçükasya. Indeed, the traces of glacial times in our country were first found in Uludağ and in 1904. The glacial traces of the pleistocene encountered on Uludağ are 200 - 300 m, extending from the northwest to the southeast, between the peaks and the high plateau plain. It consists of circuses carved on the steep wall of relative height. The circus is lined from northwest to southeast, the most prominent element of morphology in the northern part of Uludağ's peak sub-district. We examine them in three teams according to their positions: a) Western group, b) Middle group, c) Eastern group.
a) Circus group in the west
There are two circus lakes included in this group. Koğukdere Lake and Çaylıdere Lake are located. Same as these two lakes zamit is now called "Twin Circus Lake". These circuses are located just north of Sığaktepe, which is 2500 meters high. The sizes of both circus are almost the same, about 300 - 400 m. and the base elevation is 2200 meters.
b) Central circus group
This group includes Heybeli Lake and Icy Lake. It was located in the central part of the steep north wall of the peak township of Uludağ. Among the circuses included in this group, while small and low ridges consist entirely of marble, small karstic pits on the one hand and hump rock-like shapes on the other hand draw attention.
c) Circus group in the east
This group, which constitutes the most spectacular and most beautiful circuses of Uludağ, constitutes three circuses. These circuses, the highest point of the mass, gnawed on the northern slopes of Karatepe (2550 meters), are formed by a lake named Aynalı, Karagöl and Kilimli from west to east.
The Aynalıgöl circus, located in the westernmost of these, is in the shape of a large horseshoe facing the northeast. The circus is 500 meters in diameter; that is, it is larger than any of the circuses included in the central and western groups. The circus rises in very high walls on three sides. The southern half of these walls are made of marbles, and the northern half is made up of granite, gneiss and hornblende schists. Thus, Aynalı Sirki is also included in the granite-marble contact like all Uludağ circus. The second of the circuses in the Eastern group is Karagöl Circus. It is almost circular. Uludağ Hill (2543 m), which is the highest point of Uludağ, rises just south of the Karagöl Circus. Thus, the height of the steep circus walls surrounding the lake approaches 300 meters. Karagöl Circus looks to the north east like neighboring circuses and there is a moraine wall about 10 meters in front of it. The third of the circuses in the eastern group and the same zamKilimli Göl Circus, the eastern neighbor of Karagöl, constitutes the last Uludağ circus. The base of this circus, through which the granite-marble contact line passes, is occupied by the relatively smaller and less deep Kilimligöl. The level of this lake is 2330 meters. The lake's excess water seeps under a 20-meter high moraine wall that closes the circus and reappears a little below. The feet of these three lakes converge in the future and form Aksuyu, which descends to the eastern end of the Bursa Plain.
The fauna of the lakes region
As a result of zooplankton sampling in the lakes, 11 taxa were determined, including 7 taxa from the Rotifers (Wheel animals) and 3 taxa in 5 families from Copepods (Paddle feet). When we look at the distribution of the Rotifers according to the stations, it is seen that Kilimligöl is the richest station with 36 taxa. This is followed by 13 and 9 taxa, Aynalıgöl, Karagöl and Buzlu Göl. The poorest station in terms of rotifers was Heybeligöl with 8 taxa. A varying number of Oligoket (ringworm) species have been identified at all stations. Although the Naididae (mudworm) family is dominant in species diversity, no Naidid species has been found in Kilimligöl, Karagöl and Aynagöl. As a result, a total of 4 taxa were determined in zooplankton of glacial lakes in Uludağ, 36 in zoobentos and 38 in vertebrate fauna.
Animal community (fauna)
Various animals such as bear, wolf, fox, squirrel, rabbit, weasel, snake, wild boar, lizard, vulture, mountain eagle, woodpecker, owl, dove, mountain nightingale and sparrow live in Uludağ National Park. Red forest ant also provides great benefits to Uludağ forests. In 1966, a deer breeding farm was established in Yeşiltarla. Too long zamThe deer in the farm, which is currently operating, were released to nature in 2006. Bearded Vulture (Grpaetus barbatus) is an endemic species living in Uludağ. There are 46 species of butterflies living, and there are endemic species of Apollo butterfly specific to Uludağ. This butterfly butterfly, which has the largest of its kind in Turkey, zaman zamThe moment finds the opportunity to live even at an altitude of 3.000 m. Their bodies are covered with black hairs that look like fur. The dark color of the body helps it absorb heat from the sun. These wings make the butterfly rise extraordinarily.