Fatih Mosque and Complex is a mosque and complex built by Fatih Sultan Mehmed in Fatih district of Istanbul. There are 16 madrasahs, darüşşifa (hospital), tabhane (guesthouse), imaret (soup kitchen), library and Turkish bath in the complex. It was built on one of the seven hills of the city. The mosque was restored after the earthquake in 1766 and took its current form in 1771. In the mosque where the ground slips were detected in the 1999 Gölcük Earthquake, ground strengthening and restoration works were initiated by the General Directorate of Foundations in 2008 and was opened for worship in 2012.
Fatih Mosque History
It is thought that in the Byzantine period, on the hill where the mosque is located, there is the Havariyyun Church, which was built during the period of Constantine I. It is believed that the Byzantine emperors were buried on this hill. He of Constantine zammoments are known to be buried on this hill outside the city. After the conquest, this building was used as the Patriarchate church. When Fatih Sultan Mehmet wanted to build a mosque and a complex, the patriarchate moved to Pammakaristos Monastery. [Citation needed] Ali Saim Ülgen states in his article titled Fatih Mosque, which he prepared with Halim Baki Kunter, that the mosque was not built on the church.
Its construction began in 1462 and was completed in 1469. Its architect is Sinaüddin Yusuf bin Abdullah (Atik Sinan). The mosque was damaged in the 1509 Istanbul earthquake. It was repaired during the Bayezid period. Sultan III. For being ruined by an earthquake in 1766. Between 1767 and 1771, Mustafa had the mosque repaired by Architect Mehmed Tahir Ağa. For this reason, the mosque has lost its original appearance. On January 30, 1932, the first Turkish adhan was read in this mosque.
Fatih Mosque Architecture
From the first construction of the mosque, only the three walls of the fountain courtyard, fountain, tac door, mihrab, minarets and part of the surrounding wall remain. In the fountain courtyard, the portico parallel to the qibla wall is higher than the other three directions. The outer hoops of the domes are octagonal and sit on the arches. The arches are usually decorated with red stone and white marbles, only green stone is used for those on the pivot. The upper and lower windows are surrounded by large moldings. The jambs are made of marble and are identified with very large and strong moldings.
Fatih Mosque Dome
Iron bars are made of thick iron and with a ball. Eight of the portico columns are green Euboea, two are pink, two are brown granite, and some of the narthex are corn granite. The capitals are completely made of marble and all of them are stalactite. The bases are also marble. The courtyard has three gates, one in the qibla and two on the sides. The fountain has eight corners. The mihrab is wet with stalactite. The corners of the cells are decorated with green pillars, hourglasses and end with an elegant crown. There is a single line verse on the jar. The twelve-sliced minaret is combined with the mosque in great harmony. Tiled plates are in the window months on the right and left of the last congregation wall.
In the first construction of the Fatih Mosque, a dome was placed on the walls and two pillars to expand the mosque area, and a semi-dome was added in front of it. Thus, the dome, with a diameter of 26 m, remained the largest dome for a century. In the second construction of the mosque, a small domed pointed building was created by applying the plan of the buttresses. In the present case, the central dome sits on four elephant grease, surrounded by four semi-domes. Half and full domes at the second degree around the semi-domes cover the galleries in front of the ablution taps in the mahfil and outside. On the left side of the mihrab, there are the Hünkar mahfili and rooms, which are entered by a wide ramp from the side of the tomb.
The stone cones of the minarets were made at the end of the 19th century. When Architect Mehmed Tahir Ağa was repairing the mosque, he combined the classic pieces from the old mosque and the baroque pieces he rebuilt. Since the plaster windows of the mosque have been damaged in recent times, they have been replaced with ordinary frames. The fire pool next to the courtyard door Sultan II. It was built by Mahmud in 1825. The mosque had a large outer courtyard. Its door leading to the tabhane flew out of the old mosque.
Shrines and Hazire
The tomb of many important figures of Ottoman history, especially the tomb of Fatih Sultan Mehmed, is here. Fatih's wife and II. The mausoleums of Gülbahar Valide Sultan, the mother of Bayezid, "Hero of Pleven" Gazi Osman Pasha, and the master of masnavi Abidin Pasha are in the treasury. SadrazamThe fact that the graves of many scholars, Şeyhülislams, and many scholars are here allows the Ottoman protocol to be seen together as if it was a ceremony. Some of the statesmen and scholars whose graves are here are as follows:
- sadrazam Mustafa Naili Pasha
- sadrazam Abdurrahman Nureddin Pasha
- sadrazam Gazi Ahmed Muhtar Pasha
- Seyhulislam Amasyevi Seyyid Halil Efendi
- Şeyhülislam Mehmed Refik Efendi
- Ahmet Cevdet Pasha
- Emrullah Efendi. Minister of Education.
- Yesari Mehmed Esad Efendi. Calligrapher.
- Yesarizade Mustafa İzzet Efendi. Calligrapher.
- Sami Efendi. Calligrapher.
- Amish Efendi. Sufis and Fatih tomb.
- Ahmed Tahir Efendi from Marash. Student of Amiş Efendi.
- Kazasker Mardini Yusuf Sıdkı Efendi
- İsmail Hakkı Efendi from Manastır. Selatin mosques preacher.
- Şehbenderzade Ahmed Hilmi Bey. Darülfünun Philosophy professor and the.
- Bolahenk Mehmed Nuri Bey. Musician, teacher and composer.
- Ahmed Midhat Effendi
- Kose Raif Pasha
- Akif Pasha
- Sultanzade Mahmud Celaleddin Gentleman
- Foreign Minister Veliyüddin Pasha
- Foreign Minister Mehmed Raşid Pasha
- Hace Ishak Effendi
- Ferik Yanyalı Mustafa Pasha
- İbrahim Subaşı (from Tokat)
- General Pertev Demirhan