The history of amphibious operations goes back to 1200s before Christ. In those years, Egypt was attacked by warriors living on the Mediterranean islands and the shores of Southern Europe. Again BC Ancient Greeks attacking Troy in the 1200s came with an amphibious operation. Or the occupation of Greece by Persian armies that went to Marathon Bay in 490 BC…. More recently, the Battle of Gallipoli during the First World War, the Normandy Landing, which was the biggest military operation of the 1nd World War, where the sea, air and land elements jointly participated, and the Cyprus Peace, which was carried out by the Turkish Armed Forces in 2 with the elements of sea, land and air. operational ...
An amphibious operation / force transfer is a military operation launched from the sea to take off naval and land troops transported by ships to the shore of a country considered as an enemy or potential enemy, trained in landing operations and equipped with appropriate equipment and weapons. An amphibious operation requires wide air participation and is accomplished by the joint action of forces trained, organized and equipped for different combat functions. Amphibious operations can be carried out not only for military purposes but also for humanitarian aid.
Amphibious operation uses the element of surprise and puts its combat power in the most advantageous position. zamAt the same time, he takes advantage of the enemy's weaknesses. The threat of an amphibious landing can encourage enemies to divert their forces, correct defensive positions, divert large resources to coastal defense, or disperse forces. In the face of such a threat, the enemy's attempt to defend the coastline may result in costly effort.
Amphibious operations can involve high-risk as well as high-return efforts to perform critical tasks. Amphibious operations; It covers various operations such as flying troop operations and airborne operations.
There are five stages of the amphibious operation:
- Preparation and Planning
- Loading / Overlays
- Sea Crossing and Amphibious Assault
- Back Transfer / Reorganization
In order to obtain a shore head in the first hours of the operation, especially at the stage where the ship-to-shore movement continues, ships and aerial elements must be protected, except that the troops on the shore have sufficient equipment to protect them from the attacks of enemy air and ground elements.
There are two important amphibious operations in our history. On April 25, 1915, ANZAC troops, under the protection of the Allied navy, began the operation to land on the shores of the Gallipoli Peninsula. Since it was not known exactly where the attack would come from, the coastal areas were defended with weak troops. The main units were waiting behind at safe points away from enemy naval artillery. Because of this, the enemy troops who made some progress in the first hours of the landing were in place and zamAlthough it was prevented from advancing further inland with immediate interventions, they could not be prevented from forming a shore head, and clashes took place between the trenches until January 9, 1916, when the enemy troops withdrew. Despite the enemy's naval fire support, the Turkish army on the defending side managed to keep the enemy troops on the coastline and, having broken their resolve, ensured their withdrawal.
Although the Turkish Armed Forces made limited aerial interventions in Cyprus several times due to the attacks carried out by the Greeks against the Turkish population on the island, but decided to launch the island in 1964 due to the increasing violence, the operation required that both the Turkish Armed Forces and the Turkish Armed Forces had adequate training and tools for such an operation. It did not take place due to lack of equipment and international pressure. In 1964, the Navy had no landing craft and no helicopters for the landing operation on the island. Troops, military and civilian freighters, etc. to the island. would be transported by transport ships. In this way, carrying out an operation with vehicles that are not suitable for the landing operation could cause many losses and failures. Until the Peace Operation, which was carried out on July 20, 1974, the Turkish Armed Forces provided the necessary landing tools for the landing operation, trained its personnel and prepared by conducting the necessary intelligence studies. In this way, he caught the enemy who believed that we could not carry out an operation by surprise and took the island from the sea and the air. zamWith the support of the air force, he succeeded in holding the coastal head by taking out soldiers and advancing to the inner parts of the island with the support of the air force.
During the landing operations during World War II, soldiers were transported to the landing zone by transport ships protected by war and aircraft carriers, while enemy defense lines were bombed by ships and planes, while the soldiers were on the shore with weakly protected landing vehicles from these ships. zamAt the same time, they would come ashore under heavy fire, with many casualties. ZamThe moment and technological developments have brought about changes in many areas from the ships used in these operations to the landing vehicles.
Let's read an example of these changes from the memoirs of Bora Kutluhan, who was an Amphibious Marine: “It was October of 1975. NATO countries with Amphibious Forces were conducting an exercise in the Saros Bay in the North Aegean. The exercise is called 'Exercise Deep Express', the participating countries are the United States [USA], the United Kingdom, Italy and Turkey. The 3rd Amphibious Marine Infantry Battalion of the Turkish Naval Forces, TCG Serdar (L-4o2) and a sufficient number of LCTs participated in this exercise. In the rank of First Lieutenant, I was participating in this exercise with my Company as a Company Commander of that Battalion. When we arrived at the Amphibious Target Area [AHS] in the Gulf of Saros, there were dozens of ships, large and small, on the sea together with the TCG Serdar we were in. Our unit was lying in campsites on the lower tank deck of TCG Serdar. During the 12-day 'Sea Transition Phase', the ADPT of 4 people slept here, did their sports and training on the upper tank deck, resisted against various conditions of the sea, and tried to be ready for the action on the shore. Now the most sensitive and critical phase of the operation was beginning. Ship-Beach Operation. At this stage, the Union was organized as 'Boat Teams', and they were disembarking to the landing vehicles allocated to them according to the waves that would come ashore, by means of nets suspended from the unloading stations established on the starboard and port of the ship. In this descent; First, crew-operated guns, namely 57mm Recoilless Cannons, 81mm Mortars and 12.7mm Machine Guns, were lowered onto the boats via guide lines, then the Marines descended from the nets to the boats in rows of four. This activity is quite zamIt took a moment and the sensitivity of the amphibious force against all kinds of threats increased during the activity. That's where I saw LPDs for the first time. The stern ramps were open. US and British troops zamMoments come out of those open ramps with the AAVs of now called LVTP, and with a speed that is at least three or four times ours (our LCTs have azami speeds were 4-5 knots/hour. As they approached the shore, they would reduce their speed even more against the risk of sitting down and go down to 2 miles) from the ship to the shore in a safe and fast way and without stopping, they entered the first covered position safely, removing the Marines from the LVTPs here. While watching them, "I wonder if one day we will have such ships and vehicles?" I remember very well how I felt it. I didn't get lucky. During my duties in the Amphibious Marine Corps Brigade, I always went to the beach in water up to my waist.”
It is very important that the troops that will carry out the amphibious operation live in the sea, are used to its effects, know how to act in an emergency that may occur, and be trained accordingly. For this reason, the Turkish Marine Corps; zamAt TCG Erkin, TCG Ertuğrul, TCG Serdar and TCG Karamürselbey Class Turkish type LSTs tried to realize this issue in the future. However, especially since LSTs only have as much living space as the personnel of the tanks and other vehicles they will carry; the permanent stay of a Marine Battalion aboard the aforementioned ships was tormenting both the ships and the Marines. The LPDs (Landing Platform Dock / Dock Landing Ship) whose project has been initiated are the ships that can accommodate at least 6oo-7oo Marines and meet their food, drink, health and other needs during long-term cruises.
Since LPDs are 'pooled' vessels, their lower decks can take water, and since the vehicles that will remove the union are located in these docks, the Marine Corps or the units they carry are loaded on the landing vehicles and closed safely from the ship. LPDs are also available for helicopter operations. Decks created for this purpose; in some part it is located on the upper platform of the ship and in some part on the stern deck.
Pool Landing Ship Project
The Turkish Navy has one of the Mediterranean's largest Amphibious Forces, and with its new ship procurement projects in recent years, it has increased the existing capabilities of the Landing Fleet and Amphibious Marine Infantry Brigade to a level that can meet 21st century combat requirements. In this framework, 8 trot extraction vessels (LCT) and 2 tank extraction vessels (LST) were put into service.
In addition to these, after the Cyprus Peace Operation, which was carried out in 1974, the largest scale of Force Transfer (International Projection) was carried out in Somalia, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo under the umbrella of the United Nations and NATO. The Turkish Navy, which realizes using its existing amphibious facilities and capabilities, started its works in the late 90s to supply a Pool Landing Ship that can be used in natural disasters such as earthquake disasters in our country. In this framework, an Information Request Document (BID) was published by the Defense Industry Directorate in June 2000 and the ship was intended to enter service in 2006.
Within this framework, LPD, which is expected to be able to meet the food and beverage needs of the Amphibious Marine Infantry Battalion personnel, which will consist of 615 people, for a period of 30 days and to store the necessary materials for the logistic support of a 755 person Marine Corps, has two general 15-tonnes of LPD. It was asked to have a helicopter deck where a helicopter deck and four helicopters weighing 15 tons could be deployed at the same time, which would allow the Purpose / Submarine Defense War (DSH) and Surface Warfare (SUH) helicopter to take off and land at the same time. To have a tonnage and a health center that could serve 12.000 patients simultaneously between Turkey on the one used in the construction or design a completely new design from existing LPD's planned 15.000 to 10 tons had foreseen. However, no significant progress was made in the project and the project was put on the shelf in the following years with the effect of the economic crisis.
In the second tender process, the initial decision on the Landing Ship (LPD) Project was taken at the Defense Industry Executive Board (SSİK) meeting held on 22 June 2005 and the resource status review and related arrangements were made at the SSIK of 12 December 2006. Information Request Document (BID) was published by the Undersecretariat for Defense Industries to obtain administrative, financial and technical information from companies wishing to participate in the project activities, and 06 domestic and foreign firms responded to the BID, which expired on 2007 August 10. As a result of the evaluations and examinations that lasted for nearly two years, SSB issued a Call for Proposals (TÇD) to seven local private sector shipyards included in the Defense Industry Sectoral Strategy Document in February 2007.
Private sector shipyards published in TÇD are:
- Anatolian Marine Construction Rails
- Steel Boat Industry and Trade
- DEARSAN Ship Building Industry
- DESAN Marine Construction Industry
- Istanbul Maritime Shipbuilding Industry
- RMK Marine Shipbuilding Industry
- SEDEF Shipbuilding
The shipyards were asked to submit their proposals to SSB until November 2010. The LPD ship, which is planned to be built in five years, can be used in humanitarian aid and peacekeeping operations in addition to the amphibious operation.
LPD Project; 1 Mechanic Landing Craft and 4 Mechanized Landing Vehicles (LCM), 27 Amphibious Armored Assault Vehicles (AAV), 2 Vehicle and Personnel Landing Vehicles (LCVP), 1 guide commander vehicle and 2 Rigid Boat Inflatable Boats ( Includes the supply of Rigid Hull Inflatable Boat / RHIB). The LPD will have the ability to carry a total of 8 helicopters, 94 various amphibious vehicles and the Amphibious Marine Infantry Battalion. The Turkish Navy also has 2 Air Cushion Removal Vehicles (LCAC) procurement projects, 4 of which are to be deployed in LPD, in order to react suddenly in the amphibious operation.
FNSS ZAHA Amphibious Armored Assault Vehicle (AAV)
On the LPD ship, there will be a helicopter spot (takeoff / landing point) to allow the take-off and landing of four GM / DSH / SUH or Assault Helicopters in the 15-t class at the same time. At least four SeaHawk or AH-1W / T129 attack helicopters and three FireScout-like Ship-to-Ship UAVs (G-UAVs) can be transported in the helicopter hangar. On LPD expected to be equipped with ADVENT; SMART-S Mk2 3-BAR, Navigation Radar, Alper LPI Radar and Mine Clearance Sonar (hull mounted) Aselsan product AselFLIR-300D, Laser Warning System, ARES-2N ED / ET Systems, IRST, Shield Chaff / IR Decoy Control System LN-270 Gyro, Hızır based TKAS and IFF System, ÇAVLİS (Potential growth to Link-11 / Link-16 and Link-22) and SatCom Systems. Two single-barreled 4omm Fast Forty Type C marine guns [AselFLIR-4D equipped], integrated with Aselsan 300omm Ball Fire Control System [TAKS] for use against ship, surface and air targets, two 2omm Phalanx Close It will be armed with the Defense System [CIWS] and three 12.7mm STAMP. However, it is stated that the weapons hardware can change during the contract negotiations and the RAM Self Defense Missile System can be included in the package.
Pool Landing Craft (LPD) Project; A minimum battalion (550 to 700 personnel) that can be used in the Aegean, Black Sea and Mediterranean operation areas and, if necessary, the Indian Ocean [North of the Arabian Peninsula, West of India] and the Atlantic Ocean [West of Europe, North of Africa] will be capable of transferring a force of magnitude to the crisis zone with its logistic support without requiring home base support. LPD, whose main function is Force Transmission and Amphibious Operation, will have a minimum of 2.000 years of physical life, based on an annual 40-hour cruise. High Prepared Level Sea to be used in relation to missions to be handled by NATO with a Joint Operation Naval Force Headquarters (MHDGG), which will consist of an Amphibious Mission Force Operations Center and Landing Force Operations Center, whose total weight (full load) is expected to reach 18-20.000 tons. Union (HRF (M)) Headquarters will also be included. LPD, which will have an advanced integrated command control and communication (C3) system infrastructure, can thus serve as both the Flag Ship and the Command Ship.
With this ship, there may be an important concept change in the Turkish Navy. Because such ships are an important submarine, surface and air target with the very valuable cargo they carry. Against all these threats, it has to act together with the surface elements that can provide its safety and make its three-dimensional defense. This means a 'Task Force'. In other words, we will be able to see an Amphibious Task Force of at least 5-6 ships in our seas in the near future. An Amphibious Force provides a high degree of deterrent to the holding party. Flexibility is one of the other advantages it provides. in the desired area zamThe possession of power at the same time is one of the other advantages that can be listed.
Defense Industry Executive Committee [SSİK] started contract negotiations with Sedef Gemi İnşaat AŞ [Sedef Shipyard] within the scope of the Pool Docking Ship (LPD) Project, which was completed by the Undersecretariat for Defense Industries on 26 December 2013, and no agreement could be reached with the said company. In case it was decided to continue the contract negotiations with Desan Deniz İnşaat Sanayi A.Ş. Contract negotiations between SSB and Sedef Shipyard started on 19 February 2014.
Pool Landing Ship (LPD) is similar to Juan Carlos I (L-61) Doklu Helicopter Ship [LHD] built by Navantia in Sedef Shipyard in Tuzla, with the design, technology transfer, equipment and technical support to be provided by Navantia. and will be a revised version according to DzKK requests. The ship can also be used within the framework of Natural Disaster Relief (DAFYAR) missions if necessary. Thanks to the full-fledged hospital and operating room facilities within its structure, it can be used for medical support within the scope of natural disaster relief, humanitarian aid and refugee evacuation operations.
The construction ceremony was held on April 1, 2015 in the Multi-Purpose Amphibious Assault Ship (LHD) project, whose contract was signed between SSB and Sedef Shipyard on 30 June 2016. Following the signing of the contract, some changes were made in order to deploy the F-35B VTOL aircraft on board in line with the demands of DzKK in determining the final configuration that the ship will have. In addition, the 120 'incline take-off ramp (Ski-Jump) has been updated to be suitable for the landing / take-off of medium and heavy class helicopters and tilt-rotor (MV-35) aircraft and UAVs with up to 22 tons of landing and It is certain that it will be located at the top of the flight deck, on which there will be 6 spots (landing / takeoff point).
After these changes, the name of the project was revised as “Multipurpose Amphibious Assault Ship (LHD). TCG ANADOLU LHD, currently under construction, will be taken into the inventory at the end of this year.
Source: A. Emre SİFOĞLU / SavunmaSanayiST