Marmaray, Istanbul and Kocaeli in Turkey is a commuter rail system serving the city. It was realized as a result of the construction of the Marmaray Tunnel under the Bosphorus and the modernization of the existing suburban lines between Halkalı on the European side and Gebze on the Anatolian side and along the Marmara Sea. Construction work started in 2004 and the completion date of the project was announced as April 2009. However, due to the historical and archaeological findings revealed during the works, delays were experienced and the first phase of the project was put into service on 29 October 2013. The second stage works have been completed and it was put into service on March 12, 2019.
Project, immersed tube tunnel (1,4 km), drilling tunnels (total 9,4 km), on-off tunnels (total 2,4 km), three new underground stations, 37 aboveground station (renovation and improvement), new operation control center, sites , workshops, maintenance facilities, a new third line to be built on the ground, and modern railway vehicles for the 440 wagon to be supplied.
History of Marmaray
- The first feasibility study was completed in 1985.
- The feasibility study and the revision of the route were completed in 1997.
- JBIC loan agreement TK-P15, 17 was signed on September 1999.
- In the Spring of 2000, the Pre-qualification process of the Consultants started.
- 28 On August 2000, proposals were received from Consultants.
- The Engineering and Consultancy Services Contract was signed on December 13 with Eurasia Joint Venture.
- 15 March 2002 Consulting Services was launched.
- 25 On July 2002, geotechnical surveys and investigations were initiated.
- 23 On September 2002, Bathymetric surveys on the Bosphorus were initiated.
- 2 December 2002 started deep sea drilling in the Bosphorus.
- 6 On June 2003, the Tender Documents for BC1 (Rail Tube Tunnel Crossing and Stations) were sent to the Contractors who were prequalified.
- 3 On October 2003, we received bids from Contractors for BC1 (Rail Tube Tunnel Crossing and Stations).
- BC1 (Rail Tube Tunnel Crossing and Stations) 3,3 billion TL, CR1 business (Suburban Lines Improvement): 1,042 billion - €, CR2 (Railway Vehicle Supply): 586 million €, Consultancy Service: 264 million TL. The project is financed by the Jica-Japan Bank for International Cooperation, the Council of Europe Development Bank and the European Investment Bank.
- In May 2004, BC1 (Rail Tube Tunnel Crossing and Stations) Contract was signed with TGN Joint Venture.
As of August 2004, the construction sites were delivered to TGN.
- October Construction works started as of 2004.
- 8 On October 2004, a call for prequalification was made for Contractors regarding the CR1 (Suburban Improvement) contract.
- Regarding the CR1 business (Improvement of Subordinate Lines), the first tranche of 200 million Euros, obtained from the European Investment Bank, entered into force with the Decision of the Council of Ministers dated 1 October 22.693 and numbered 22.
- Regarding CR1 (Improvement of Subordinate Lines) business, a second tranche of 450 million Euros, obtained from the European Investment Bank, entered into force with the Decision of the Council of Ministers No 2 dated 23.306 February 20.
- CR1 (CR1 Suburban Improvement) business bids were received on 15 February 2006 and the lowest bid was invited to Alstom Marubeni Doğuş (AMD) Group contract negotiations.
- The 1 million Euro loan provided from the European Investment Bank regarding the CR400 business (Improvement of Subordinate Lines) contract entered into force with the Decision of the Council of Ministers numbered 2, dated 23.421 June 14, CR2006 (No: 10607 TR).
- TBMs (Tunnel Boring Machines), which will perform the drilling of Ayrılıkçeşme and Yedikule tunnels, started to work with ceremonies on December 1, 21 regarding the BC2006 (Rail Tube Tunnel passing and Stations) business.
- The first submerged tube tunnel element for the BC1 (Rail Tube Tunnel Crossing and Stations) work - (E11 element) was placed in the ditch excavated at the bottom of the Bosphorus on 24 March 2007.
- Within the scope of CR1 (CR1 Suburban Lines Improvement) work, 21June 2007 date, Alstom Marubeni Doğuş (AMD) Group delivered deliveries.
- BC1 (Rail Tube Tunnel Crossing and Stations) is the last 7 scope. The immersed tube tunnel element (element E5) was placed on the 01 June 2008 into the ditch dug at the bottom of the Bosphorus.
- CR2 (Railway Vehicle Procurement) Tender 07 was launched on June 2007 and 12 March 2008 received bids from tenderers.
- CR2 (Railway Vehicle Supply) Tender 10 was concluded on November 2008 and a contract was signed with HYUNDAI ROTEM.
- BC1 (Rail Tube Tunnel Crossing and Stations) Within the scope of work, TBM (Tunnel boring machine), which started to excavate without separation, reached Üsküdar Scissor Tunnel on February 2009.
- On August 4, 2013, trial runs of Marmaray, whose construction was completed by 95%, were started.
- The first stage was put into service on October 29, 2013.
- CR3 (Suburban Improvement Project) is being run by the Spanish company Obrascon Huarte Lain and the completion date is planned as 2019.
- It was completed on March 12, 2019.
Delays in Marmaray
Archaeological excavations started on 9 May 2004. Important historical remains have been excavated by expert archaeologists and under the Istanbul Archaeological Museums Administration. Underwater research aroused great excitement all over the world. With the Marmaray budget, the treasures from these centuries ago have been brought to light. During the Marmaray project, the relevant institutions have arranged the works to minimize the damage to the historical artifacts underground. Extensive studies have been carried out on the vulnerable areas. Just prior to the proposal phase, an inventory of historical buildings along its route was prepared and the position for compliance was determined. Within the scope of the project, Üsküdar, Ayrılıkçeşme and Kadıköy on the Asian side; The historical artifacts found in Sirkeci, Yenikapı and Yedikule on the European side have been unearthed. The city planning directorate of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality will build a museum in Yenikapı with historical artifacts. In the future, Yenikapı will work as a museum-station with shipwrecks and handmade historical products.
With the approval of the Istanbul Regional Protection Board of Cultural and Natural Assets, the historical buildings in the Yenikapı cut & cover station site were liquidated and will be rebuilt after the station construction is completed. In accordance with the Preservation Committee solutions, Kızıltoprak, Bostancı, Feneryolu, Maltepe, Göztepe, Kartal, Erenköy, Yunus and Suadiye stations will be preserved in their existing places due to their historical features. Among the artifacts found are 36 ships, ports, walls, tunnels, king's graves, and footprints dating back 8.500 years. A total of 11.000 finds and artifacts were produced. The historical artifacts found in the excavations will be exhibited in the Yenikapı Transfer Center and Archeopark Area, which will be built as a museum-station.
The reason for the delay of the tube passage is the archaeological remains of the Byzantine Empire and the archeological studies carried out in Üsküdar, Sirkeci and Yenikapı regions where 2005 was landed by Europe. As a result of excavations 4. Theodosius Port, the biggest harbor of the city in the 18th century, was unearthed.
The modernization phase of the existing railways could not be started, although there was no obstacle; The Pendik - Gebze section was closed in 2012, and the Sirkeci - Halkalı and Haydarpaşa - Pendik sections were closed in 2013 for renewal. Renovation works, which were announced to last for 24 months, took up to six years due to delays and entered service on 12 March 2019.
Marmaray, Haydarpaşa-Gebze and Sirkeci-Halkalı suburban lines were improved and connected by Marmaray Tunnel. With the completion of the second stage, the 76,6 km long line serves with 43 stations.
When the construction is completed, the line connected to Marmaray, 1,4 km. (tube tunnel) and 12,2 km. (bored tunnel) It was planned to be approximately 76 km long, with the TBM Bosphorus crossing and the parts between Halkalı-Sirkeci on the European side and Gebze-Haydarpaşa on the Anatolian side. Railways on different continents were combined with immersed tube tunnels under the Bosphorus. Marmaray has the deepest immersed tube tunnel in the world used by rail systems with a depth of 60,46 meters.
The line number between Gebze-Ayrılık Çeşmesi and Halkalı-Kazlıçeşme is 3, and the number of lines between Ayrılık Çeşmesi-Kazlıçeşme is 2.
Projected working hours of the system are as follows;
Passenger trains will be able to use a tube tunnel at 06.00-22.00 hour intervals.
Passenger trains will be able to use a tube tunnel according to their schedule.
They will be able to use the system at 00.00-05.00 time intervals.
Although the daily use of Marmaray is targeted as 1.000.000 passengers, it has carried an average of 136.000 people per day in the first year since its opening. With the opening of the Gebze-Halkalı section, it is expected that the target of 1.000.000 passengers per day will be reached. 365 100.000 flights were made in Marmaray during the day and a total of 50 million passengers were transported. 52% of the passengers used the Marmaray line from the European side and 48% from the Anatolian side.
As of 13 March 2019, the fee schedule is as follows:
|Number of stations||Full||reduced||Reduced-2|
|1 – 7||2,60||1,25||1,85|
|8 – 14||3,25||1,55||2,30|
|15 – 21||3,80||1,80||2,70|
|22 – 28||4,40||2,10||3,15|
|29 – 35||5,20||2,50||3,70|
|36 – 43||5,70||2,75||4,00|
There are forty-three stations on the 76,6 kilometer Marmaray line, all of which have disabled access.  Thirty-eight of them are located in Istanbul and five in Kocaeli. From west to east, Halkalı, Mustafa Kemal, Küçükçekmece, Florya, Florya Aquarium, Yeşilköy, Yesilyurt, Ataköy, Bakırköy, Yenimahalle, Zeytinburnu, Kazlıçeşme, Yenikapı, Sirkeci, Üsküdar, Ayrilik Fountain, Söğütlüçeşme, Feneryolu, Göztepe, Erenköy, Suadiye, Bostancı Küçükyalı, İdealtepe, Süreyya Beach, Maltepe, Cevizli, Atalar, Başak, Kartal, Yunus, Pendik, Kaynarca, Tersane, Güzelyalı, Aydıntepe, İçmeler, Tuzla, Çayırova, Fatih, Osmangazi, Darıca and Gebze stations serve. Sirkeci, Üsküdar and Yenikapı stations are underground, other stations are above ground.
From the Ayrılık Fountain, Üsküdar and Yenikapı stations to the Istanbul metro; Kucukcekmece and Sogutlucesme stations to the metrobus, Sirkeci station to tram, Yenikapi station can be transferred to the IDO ferry. The average station range is 1,9 km. Station lengths are at least 225 meters.
In the CR2 Railway Vehicle Manufacturing stage, until the year 2013, a total of 38 wagons of 10 wagons consisting of 12 wagons with 5 and 440 wagons with 50 were imported from South Korea. 586 set consisting of only 5 wagons of the total cost of 12 million dollars, was put into service in 2013 with the commisioning of the suburban section between Ayrılıkçeşme and Kazlıçeşme. system could not be put into service. Sets received in 10 are still kept idle at Haydarpaşa Railway Station.