Metro in the world and Turkey: Metro in the world and Turkey: population density is generally more established in the center of town and the big city that is rapidly connecting stops and underground electric rail transport to the suburbs. It has a way out of the city traffic, it moves on the double line and provides the opportunity to use a large number of wagons in the subway and reach a high speed. The subway can be managed with very few staff.
The first subway in the world was established in London. Opened to operation in 1863, this metro currently carries about eight million passengers a day. The Paris subway, opened in 1900, now carries more than five million passengers a day. Other cities with metro in Europe; Budapest (1896), Berlin (1882), Hamburg (1912), Leningrad (1915), Moscow (1935), Stockholm (1950), Vienna (1898), Madrid (1919), Barcelona (1923), Rome (1955), Lisbon (1959), Milan (1962).
In the year of 1868, the Newyork metro, which was opened by air lines passing over the street, was transformed into underground lines in 1904. Other cities with US subways, Chicago (1892), Philedelphia (1907), Boston (1901), Toronto (1921).
Tokyo in Japan 1927 and Osaka 1933, and Buenos Aires in Argentina in 1911 got metro. The air lines of the subways are at least 6 meters above the ground. The roof is metal or reinforced concrete. It rests on the soil with solid supports. Two systems are applied in underground lines. In the first, the galleries where the lines will pass are 6-8 meters deep just below the street level, and 35-40 meters below the other. The first method of metro is cheaper. Because in these, the excavation of the galleries is started by ditching deep from the street level, and a reinforced concrete wall is built on both sides of the ditch. Thus, after the gallery takes the form of a rectangular prism, it is closed and the street is re-paved. The biggest disadvantage of this method is that it follows the street plan, so it is long, indented and protruding. Although the excavation was made at a medium depth of 6-8 meters, the walls in the double-line galleries show an elliptical shape. In deep networks the lines do not follow the plans of the streets, they are mostly straight lines. Thus, the distance between two points to go from one to the other becomes very short. The galleries in these networks are carved round. A single line passes through them. These galleries, with a circle diameter of 3,5-4,5 m, were paved with steel rings. But the last zamAt times, these steel rings are replaced by a prefabricated concrete flooring system that can be screwed together.
Rail span is standard on almost all of them (1435 mm). There are no double lines in deep galleries. Two galleries can be found side by side, each with trains running in one direction. Deviations and rotations are only at the station points. Lines no zamthe moment does not intersect. Stations are built by expanding galleries in underground networks and by installing a platform roof in air networks. There are 100-160 meters long platforms at the stations. Most of the passengers going out zamThe moment is provided by escalators. Trains are the same as electric trains. It is mostly bidirectional. The number and shape of wagons varies according to the network. Although subway trains can run 90-100 km per hour, it is generally not exceeded 60 km. An average of 20 trains per hour moves in one direction. However, as in the London Underground, it can be reached up to 40 floors per hour.
World's Best Metro Tracks
- Newyork arab America: Very few people have a car in New York. Finding parking is something like looking for gold on the road, but also the time is very small. The 1904 station with 28 station in 462 now has 4.9 station and carries 365 million per day. Also this metro is open on 7 day 24 / XNUMX hours of the year.
- London ud England: The London subway is the world's largest and oldest metro. Built in 1863, the metro now has a total of 405 stations on the 268 km line. 976 million people a day to go somewhere in London uses this subway.
- Paris X France: Paris Metro is the world's oldest 2. One of the subways. It is possible to reach every point of Paris by metro. With the 214 km line and the 380 station, it is the best metro to be covered as you only need to walk 500 meters when you land on a station. 4 million people a day are transported by this subway.
- Moscow: Known as the world's most punctual metro system, the Moscow metro carries over 8.2 million people on an average working day. The Moscow metro has 290 stations with its 172 km line. Although a large part of this subway runs underground, a small part goes over the bridge and continues to enchant people every day with the view of both Moscow and Yauza river.
- Montreal – Canada: The Montreal Metro was first built in 1966. The 60 km long metro station with the 68 station is considered to be one of the world's best metros, although it is not one of the longest metros in the world. 835.000 carries people per day.
- Madrid-Spain: Madrid metro is the 2nd in Europe and the 6th in the world. Madrid metro was first opened in 1919 with its 3,3 km line and 8 stations, and then increased to 231 stations. Madrid metro is one of the busiest subways in the world, used by 1.8 million people a day.
- Tokyo: Tokyo's public transport system is excellent. 10.6 million people per day in this country use public transport, 7.7 million people a day on the subway. There is a total 287 metro station in Tokyo. Each station has both English and Japanese announcements.
- Seoul – South Korea: The Seoul subway is one of the most populous in the world. Approximately 8 million people use this metro daily. 287 is one of the longest metro stations in the world with its km line. Although most of the train goes underground,% 30 goes over the ground.
- Beijing – China: Beijing subway was built in 1969. Thanks to this subway, the Chinese can easily visit the cities inside and outside Beijing. Before the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, 7.69 billion USD was invested in this subway, and the current subway started to operate on an area of 480 km. This metro, which is used by 3.4 million people a day, is considered as the most crowded subway in China.
- Hong Kong: Although the metro system in Hong Kong is a very short distance from other cities (90 km), around 3.8 million people use this metro a day. In this order, 9 is one of the most popular people in the world. The country is. This metro was built by the British in 1979.
Current Situation in Turkey
A total of 1908 metro and LRT vehicles were sold to our country and 2013 million passengers were planned to be transported by the end of 2.5. 2023 metro and LRT light rail transportation vehicles are needed until 7000. Until the 2023 2 in the country, which will increase the number of railways in our country; 26 will also provide high-speed train lines for one thousand kilometers of 10 thousand km of railways across the country. In 2023, the number of passengers per day in urban rail transport systems will increase to 4.1 million and cargo transportation will be 200 million tons / year. In 2004, the passenger transport rate of% 3 will be increased by 2023 in 10 and the freight transport rate will be increased from 5.5 to 15.
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