Tramways and History of Tramways in Istanbul

Since the beginning of the 20 century, the demand for travel between the housing and the workplace has arisen due to the industrialization in the cities and the increase in the population due to it.

In the beginning, the means of transportation of animals have increasingly been replaced by today's vehicles, which are powered by steam powered vehicles, then electric vehicles and fossil fuels.

The common aspects of all these means of transportation, in contrast to their distinct structural appearance; they are included in urban transportation and they are intended for public transportation.

The types of transportation vehicles as well as the types of enterprises were also important, and the transportation services, nationalization and social state policies, which were carried out by private enterprises in the past, were carried out by 1. After the World War I, it became a public service because of its influence and after the 1980, privatization was highlighted for the transportation sector as in all public services.

19. From the second half of the 19th century onwards, important turning points of Istanbul's urban transportation services are seen as follows:

  • The first equestrian tram was run in 1871.
  • Tunnel, which unites Galata and Beyoğlu in 1875, started its service.
  • The first bus was put into service in 1926.
  • In 1939, transportation services were expropriated with the law numbered 3645 and connected to the newly established IETT General Directorate.
  • In 1963, trolleybuses started to work.
  • Trams were withdrawn from service in Europe in 1961 and on the Anatolian Side in 1966.
  • In 1991, the Tram was operated again in the pedestrian zone of Beyoğlu.

Urban transport in Istanbul has been the subject of a very messy issue in various sources, but a systematic (systematic) library about transportation has not been established. In particular, urban transportation and IETT's history of Istanbul has not been transformed into a neat and satisfying source, and has not been published.

However; this study, which has been updated and enriched by combining private or public transportation literature so far; 127 is our main wish to provide regular information about the history of Istanbul transportation services carried out since the year and to be the source of original studies on the subject to be carried out after that.

In a cultural capital such as Istanbul, such works enable the city to meet the history of the city and to catch and follow the line that reinforces the historical consciousness. The truth of the city is structured with the consciousness of the people who have a deep understanding of it. One of the ways to become a citizen of this city is the monographs, institutions and business history, etc.

This study, which includes the history of Istanbul of the Tramway Administration, will be particularly meaningful for many people with a history of 40 years of age. Of the revived memories of many of them, by blowing their drums, trams with the fringing fringe passengers will once again flow.
In Istanbul, perhaps nothing has been integrated into the city and people as much as trams.

We are paying a hearted debt. 1939'dan 1966 until the year we run the trams, but not the last time, salute.

As mentioned above, the study is a compilation as rich as possible, and hence the sources are quoted undesirably considering the future benefits. Particularly the unique work of Mr. Çelik Gülersoy, who has set his heart in Istanbul, Tramway Istanbul (1992) has been the most used resource with its richness. We hope that you will understand us as the subject is tram.

Finally, our goal is to save the trams from being forgotten.

In addition, we would like to thank to Mr. Ergün Arpaçay for his unrivaled love of Trolley in Istanbul with Milliyet Newspaper (1992) and to Mr. Onur Orhan for his unrivaled transportation history, to the officer and manager for his trolley workers and to the manager and all the employees. no limit.

Fehime Tunalı Çalışkan

zikrullah Red

TRAMWAY IN ISTANBUL

What is Tram?

Tram; It is a transport system on rails in the city, which initially consists of animal power and then electrical power vehicles (tow or motris wagons). In this dry, scientific definition, 150 in Istanbul enters a long history full of memories and associations of years.

First Trams in the World

The first example of the tram, which is the highest public transportation vehicle of the period, is the trams, the first in the world in the United States (New York) in 1842, as a French engineer named Loubant.

Loubant is a French engineer who finds the tram. Inspired by horse-drawn wagons mining the mines, M. Loubant went to the United States after failing to get the horse-drawn trolley he made in his country and not to have it in other European countries. And as mentioned above, Loubant's tram project was implemented on the streets of New York. After three years; Loubant's country, France, adopted the tram, and since the 1845, horse-drawn trams have begun to be seen on the streets of Paris. Then the competing country, London, the capital of England, 1860 trolley tram shows a great interest, has set up a tram business.

ZamElectric trams replaced horse-drawn trams with the use of electricity within a single moment. Electric trams began to operate in Berlin (Germany) in 1881, London (England) in 1883 and Boston (USA) in 1889.

ATLI TRAMS IN ISTANBUL

First Tram in the Ottoman Capital Until the 1860s, transportation in the Ottoman capital; an Istanbul at sea
On the other hand, with the boats of the invention, and on the land, they were carried out by walking and horses, and later by the wood and ornamented cars of the ox and horses. Moving in Istanbul these vehicles 19. century was far from meeting the need.
The trams, which were first operated in Istanbul within the boundaries of the Ottoman Empire (called omnibus at that time), were later established in the other major cities of the Empire and operated in Thessaloniki, Damascus, Baghdad, Izmir and Konya, respectively.

Establishment of the Company in Istanbul

The first contract on the laz Tramway Facility and Construction in Dersaadet N for the establishment of the tramway system was held during the reign of Sultan Abdulaziz, 30 on August 1869. What is interesting is the lack of a company in the contract stage. According to the formula, the company (the company) will be established, on behalf of a company to be established, Karapano [1] * Efendi, the Minister of Public Works of the period will sign the agreement with Minister Nadir Bey; If the company is not established within a certain period of time, the contract will be null and void; but on the other hand, this contract signed by the Deputy Minister of Nafia will be approved by both the State Council and the Committee of Deputies (commitment in favor of the third party). (See Annex: Contracts).
In accordance with this contract, for the laying of railroads and carriages for the transportation of people and goods in the streets of Istanbul, Kumpanyaya (Dersaadet Tramway Company) was authorized by Xanthi Karapano Efendi for the 40 year.
N The Company-i Umumiye-i Osmaniye adet (Societe Generale Ottomane), Bank-ı Osmani (Ottoman Bank) and Monsieur Komondo and Hristaki Zoğrafos Efendi and Mösyö Zarifi and Konstantin Karafasto Efendi are also the founders of e Dersaadet Tramway Company Osman in the same year (1869 was established and put into operation. The founders of the company, which was founded and commissioned after the contract, were further from the Ottoman bank, R. Edwards (an Englishman who settled in Istanbul), G. Casanova Rally (Banker), DG Fernandey (Banker), R.Viterbe (Merchant-Company Manager), Demetrios Raspalli ( The capital of the company where the company was located, 20 gold Xinnum (Ottoman Lira) value of the 20,000 gold Lira, was the total amount of 400,000. The business license was given by Mehmet Kabuli Bey, who was the Minister of Trade and Agriculture of the period on behalf of the Ottoman Empire and who was acting as the Minister of Nafia.

Launch of the first tram in Istanbul, 27 year after the first tram in the world, 3 September 1869'da took place. The Ottoman state was the fourth country in equestrian tram management.

First Mounted Tramways, First Contract (1869)

With an additional document, the routes to be operated by Dersaadet Tramway Company and the 4 line to be opened were determined. (See Annex: Contracts). These;

  • Azapkapisi- Galata- Fındıklı-Kabataş- Ortaköy
  • Eminönü-Bab-ı Ali-Soğukçeşme- Divanyolu- Aksaray Yusuf Pasha
  • Aksaray- Samatya- Yedikule
  • Aksaray- Topkapı are its lines.

Starting from the date of the contract, the first and second lines were expected to be completed in 2 and the third and fourth lines in 4 years. The work for the construction of a horse-drawn tramway took two years. Karapano's company was in fact a Belgian company despite the shares of some local organizations.

For the land and structures to be cut or part of the trolley will be settled; If the owner did not accept the agreement despite the proposed fair price, the state would intervene and expropriate.
The company staff, the Ottoman rule was laid, but the key staff and the top managers were left open door to be foreign. In the event of accidents caused by the company's fault, the liability rule was introduced.

Şehremaneti (Municipality) would supervise the operation, in particular the road network, but the company would pay the costs. For this purpose, the 100 Ottoman Gold was given an advance. The company encountered various problems when it started laying the tracks. The construction of roads, the introduction of vehicles from abroad and other preparations took 2 years. The first tram was put into service at 1871. 430 pieces were purchased, some were brought from outside. Until then, the streets and streets of Istanbul were paved with cobblestone. This made it difficult to install the rails quickly. For this reason, upon the imposition of İstanbul Şehremini Servet Pasha, an article was put on the first contract. Accordingly, the company; It would take the construction and repair of the pavements while laying the tram rails on the roads opened by Şehremaneti. Thus, the main streets of the city, old and crooked cobblestone pavements, such as the first lines, Tophane-Beşiktaş, were completely removed and covered with paving stones. In particular, the road from the bridge to the Bab-i Ali (government road), the road from Azapkapısı to Tophane (Müşirliğe), the curb edges of the hard border stone, was laid with cut stone.

According to the first contract; separate wagons were envisaged for women, while mixed cars adopted separate sections with curtains. The passenger would be able to carry free goods until 10 okkaya (1 Okka = 1283 gr) and pay the higher price. At least 20 stops will be made for the passenger and one stop at each stop. Apart from the stops, passenger loading and unloading at each desired location was mandatory. This rule was removed with electric trams (1911). The service starts with the sunrise (Tülu-u Şems) and ends at 24 at night. Study tariffs in newspapers and stops; It would be announced in Turkish, Greek, Armenian and Jewish languages. At the end of the concession period, the enterprise would be transferred to the state and the 20 would lose the Company's right for the day-out line.

First of all, three lines of rail were installed and opened for operation.
· Galata - Tophane - Beşiktaş - Ortaköy
· Eminönü - Sirkeci - Divanyolu - Beyazıt - Aksaray - Topkapı
Aksaray - Samatya - Yedikule

Atlı Tramway Management

Apart from the wealthy owners who had a horse-drawn car in Istanbul at that time, the residents of İstanbul were walking on their way. For this reason, the use of the trams drawn by the horses in the 1871 in the above-mentioned routes attracted great interest.

Initially, passengers were getting on and off where they wanted, but it is very common for trams to stop where every passenger wants to. zam"Compulsory" and "optional" stops were placed at certain places along the route, as it caused loss of momentum. Cars stopped at mandatory stops. At the optional stops, there are passengers to get off or on at that stop. zamcars stopped at the moment. Initially, these trams were operated on a single line, and switches were made to prevent encounters in certain places. The tram that came before passed the next line with this switch, waited for the tram on the opposite, and after that passed, it would cross the line again. The lines were converted to double lines, and the departure routes were separated, as the passengers made very long waits for crossing the switches. However, in places where the road width does not allow (for example, Haseki Hospital road), there is only one line. The horse-drawn tram wagons were brought from Belgium, and the large cadanas that pulled the vehicles were brought from Hungary. The horses were changed in the small stables set up at the beginning of the slope and the speed was not reduced.
Istanbul, unfortunately, was not as flat as in most other European cities. Since the Azapkapısı-Ortaköy (Baby) line was flat, the horses were not difficult at all. For this reason, like the omnibuses in England, two-storey wagons could be put into operation on this even more initial launch. It was very splendid to write on the upper floor. But on the other tram lines the road was bumpy. Horses had a hard time pulling heavy wagons.

The number of horses according to the steepness of the slope was increased to 2, even to 4.

There were three important officers on these horse-drawn trams. They were attenders, ticket holders, and wailing. Vatman was the driver, and the guardian was usually chosen from the wind people who ran well and ran in front of the tram, zaman zamAt the same time, he was the officer ringing the pipe, shouting "varda" and warning the public and leading the tram. The warriors were mostly chosen from among the pumpers and bullies. They were dressed in boots, trousers, long jackets and fezes. The word varda was formed by the breakdown of the Italian guarda, meaning "Get out, give way, dodge". Warners had to run faster than horses.

ZamThe understanders were purged due to lack of resources, and the rattles and bells attached to the neck of the horses met the duty of the warriors.
The driver was called a snitch. The handler with a long whip in the front row of horse in front of the horse's ear whip snickers, "hayda" he called out. These whips and many molded fezes fly in the weather, even a woman who has lost one of the eyes is mentioned. Tram cars were divided into two as summer and winter. Winter cars were closed. Passengers traveled side-by-side from the front of the windows to the reclining rows. The side cars were open and the seats were like school benches. The wagons did not have doors and parades in the middle of the place. The steps along the two sides were mounted and descended. The ticket makers used to travel on these steps. Initially, private cars were allocated for women. Male passengers and female passengers could not ride in the same car. Women used to ride on special cars that were reserved for each line. However, it was seen that this practice was very costly and caused disruption in flights. As mentioned before, women's trams were abandoned and the front part of all the cars were separated by a red curtain.

In this way, haremlik greetings were created in trams and men and women traveled separately. The gap between the blinds and the big boys traveling with women led to interesting controversy. In the novels of the great writer Hüseyin rahmi Gürpınar (Şıpsevdi), there are fun pages about this.

After the Republic, haremlik-selamlik application on trams has been abolished.

Travel fee on the first trams, zamit was expensive for the moment. With 60 coins, the most expensive ticket, he zamAn 1.5 okka (1 okka = 1283 gr.) bread or 1 okka olive, 3 okka onions, 6 okka charcoal, 6 daily newspapers, 1 pack of tobacco could be purchased, and it could be dyed 6 times. ZamMoment, travel fees are cheaper.

Yellow-painted Horse Trams are usually pulled by two horses, while on slopes two more horses are tied to the cars as a reserve. For this reason, small stables were built for these spare horses at the beginning of the slope. When the reinforcement horses were leveled at the end of the slope, they were dissolved and taken back to their stables. It is known that there are horse stables in Bankalar Street at the beginning of Şişhane slope and Alemdar street at the beginning of Divanyolu slope.

The groom, who waits in the stables, rushes to the wagon, but then, when he is on the straight, he sits next to the rider to bring him back to the stable; When the hill was over, he would return to the stable on his horse. Each zamThe journey did not look healthy at the moment, and the horse-drawn trams would often slide back on the slopes, leading to dramatic scenes. The horses that were carefully selected during the founding years of the company were beautiful and imposing Hungarian and Austrian cadanas and were well cared for. But short zamimmediately became useless due to the advice of maintenance work and the overload. Significant drops were observed in tram speeds as no new horses were brought. Accordingly, the criticism that horse-drawn trams were not suitable for Istanbul started to be expressed in the daily life of those days. The transportation choice of Istanbulites was still walking. It was also strange for most Istanbulites to pay for transportation.

“With the arrival of the tramway horses to our city, according to the information we have received about cruising and travel, these combinations are firstly assigned to the Şişli line and after they have been served there for three years, they are transferred to Azapkapı and employed there for two years and employed in Topkapı for one year, subsequent lifetimes were also accused of the history of Samatya. If those who are exclusively exempted from tul-i life occur, they would have been handed over to the donkeys, and they were walking around the street ... ”Ahmet RASİM

1881 Agreement

By the way, after another 12 annual operation experience of the business permit of the Dersaadet Tramway Company, 28 signed another contract signed in July 1881 (see Annex: Contracts) while the 36 year was extended by 6 months, while the contract agreed with the additional document;

  • Voyavoda Street - Kabristan Street (Today's Tepebaşı Square) - Büyük Street - Taksim - Pangaltı - Şişli,
  • Eminönü - Balıkpazarı - Odunkapısı - Cibali - Fener - Balat -Eyüp,
  • Tatavla (Kurtuluş) by deviating from a point to be detected in the first line,
    lines.

Second line no zamthe moment did not happen.

An innovation that comes with this contract is that the cost of the trip is tied to the distance (up to a thousand meters). In addition, if the profit exceeds% 15, lowering the transportation fees and putting a complaint book in the stops are interesting items.
In the same year, tram lines were laid for Galata, Tepebaşı and İstiklal Avenue.
1907 Agreement
The composition of the partners of the Tram Company is changing and the Galata Bankers are gradually replaced by other foreigners. During this period, among the shareholders, the famous Jewish lawyer of the business world, Maitre Salem, is located. The company is good with the government and Sultan Hamid. In November 31 1907 (see Annex: Contract), the concession period has been increased to 75 year, as well as the construction and operation of some new lines.
1 of the contract. According to the article;
· From Beyazıt - to Fatih and Edirnekapı via Şehzadebaşı,
· From Galatasaray to Tunel,
· From Pangalti to Tatavla (Salvation),
If requested;
· From Eyup to Eminönü,
· From Unkapanı to Fatih via Vefa,
· From Ortaköy to Kuruçeşme and Bebek,
three lines would open.

5 for others, 10 for others, was given for the time.

500 m. provided that the Government would give concessions to other persons and organizations. Customs exemption was provided for the material required for construction, and the company was granted the authority to issue bonds for domestic borrowing.
The horse-drawn tramway line was extended in 1911 to Kurtuluş and Şişli.

During these years, there was a great pressure on the Company and the Government to run the electric trams operated in Europe in Istanbul. Especially the foreign colony, Louis Rambert, general manager of the Tobacco Regime, was very eager. The main complaint was the smell of horse and manure, with stables set up on the roads for horse-drawn trams. For all these reasons, article 1907 of the contract (11); The phrase “if it is permitted to run the tram cars with the force of electricity in the future…” was added.

Dersaadet Tramway Company, in the first year of operation 4.5 has carried the passenger close to the million, 53.000 Lira had provided income. The company's 430 horse-mounted fleet fleet consisted of 100 cars. Some of these cars had open seats. These were two-storey wagons. They were the cause of intense interest.

Company, zamWithin an instant, it established Tramway depots in Aksaray, Beşiktaş, Tatavla and Şişli. In these warehouses, there were the barns for the horses and the carpentry shops where the tramway wagons were repaired.

ACCURATE TO ELECTRIC TRAININGS

The first electric tram in Istanbul was operated 33 year after the first electric tram in the world. Istanbul has been considerably delayed on electric trams according to the tramlines. 1881 1883 year in 1889 33 1881 36 1907 75 1908 XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX XNUMX in the hands of this right in the hands even though it does not want to spend money on the electric trolley in the hands of a reason why the Ottoman throne in the Ottoman Empire. Sultan Abdülhamid is said to have a great fear of electricity and electricity. Since the operation permit of Dersaadet Tramway Company has been renewed for a period of time, there has been no attempt for electric tram until XNUMX.

In 1910, the Ottoman Government granted an annual concession to the Ganz Joint Stock Companies located in Pest, Hungary. In 50, “Osmanlı Anonim Elektrik Şirketi X was established. Now there was a source of electricity for the trams. In the same year, the contract for the electric operation of the Tram Company's wagons is signed. But there is a roughness. With the 1911 contract, the possibility of using electric power to the trams; British-based Tünel Company objected to the fact that it has the right to operate electric vehicles and claims that they will seek compensation. The Tramway Company won the discussion, two companies agreed, and the Tunnel Company bought the Tramways to be paid to 1907 pounds, and with a% 95,000 interest rate. Thus, in January of 5, since the Tunnel Line was transferred to the Tram Company, the 1910 Convention could be signed and the tram was connected to the electricity.

In 1912, with the emergence of the Balkan War, the Government purchased all horses of the Dersaadet Tramway Company for 30,000 Gold Liria. This, in the unlikely situation, Istanbul people remained trampled for a year. And the period of horse-drawn trams ended with the Balkan War.

On the other hand, despite the removal of the routes even on the double, the efficiency decline could not be prevented. Because the carrying power of the 430 horse was useless due to the lack of care and fatigue of the animals.

On the same dates (21 November 1911), the decision on İst Power to Power in Dersaadet Tramway Company,, the government envisaged the licensing of electric energy in tram cars across the network. Electrified by this contract, the tram company was obliged to build factories, to buy electricity, to approve the price to the Nafia Ministry, to lay a double line to the Karaköy bridge, and to remove the old roads to 15 (1 = 68 cm).

The materials to be brought from foreign countries for the facilities, real estate, land, revenues, stocks and bonds of the company; stamp and pictures were immune. In addition, with the same date document added to the contract, the construction of the electrical facilities will start in the 6 month and will be completed within the 24 month at the latest.

The electricity required in the electric trams was provided either from the air lines with a collector pantograph searcher located on the tram or from the space between the rails by means of a device attached to the bottom of the tram. When electricity was taken from the air line, the circuit was completed with rails. However, when electricity is taken from underground, the wires under the ground are arranged both positively and negatively, so the circuit is completed with them. Tram engines are the same zamThey would also do the rheostat braking process. Tram tracks were laid either protruding in the middle of the road or buried in the ground. In either case, they could move along with the general traffic. Recently, trams were separated from general traffic and taken to a special road with preserved surroundings.

First Electric Tram

For the first time in the Ottoman Empire, the first electric trolleys were tested in Damascus. This was possible with the continuous pressures made to the Dersaadet Tram Company. However, Atlı Tramways started to be operated first in Istanbul and then in other cities of the Empire: Damascus, Baghdad, Izmir and Konya.

In the 1913, Dersaadet Tramway Company accepted the operation of the Istanbul Tramways and started to work and this study lasted until February of 1914. February 1914'da Istanbul 's first electric trolley with a great ceremony began on the Karaköy-Ortakoy line. Therefore, a great ceremony was held in Karaköy; After the prayers and the sacrifices read, Şehremini Bedreddin Bey gave a speech and wished the electric trams would be beneficial to Istanbul.

The ceremonial photo taken that day was published in Paris in I'llustration, 7 published in February. The proceeds of that day were left to the Navy Society.

In the same year, the wooden Galata Bridge was restored for the fourth time, iron was provided to pass through the trams.
Dersaadet Tramway Company raised the capital of the company to 35,531.- Lira by collecting 2.5 Lira from 266,482 shareholders for the installation of overhead lines, providing the necessary materials, building the facilities and purchasing motor wagons (motris). In the meantime, the first electric tram was put into service on February 20, 1914 in Tophane on the Karaköy - Ortaköy route, as stated above, as the Ottoman Incorporated Electric Company, established by the Belgians, gave the Dersaadet Tram Company a power. With the operation of the electric tram, the first tram operation over the Galata Bridge has been a source of excitement for Istanbul residents. Separate ceremonies were held here due to the laying of the line and the opening of the bridge to the tramway. After the tram started to pass over the Galata Bridge, a penny "Köprü Mürürye Official" was added to the tram tickets. Trams were passed over the Galata Bridge and the Istanbul and Beyoğlu sides of the city were connected in 1. Trams started to carry passengers with the electricity produced by an electrical factory in Kabataş. In order for the electric trams to work, the wide-spaced rails of the horse-drawn trams were narrowed. As in the first run of the Tunnel; Initially, electric trams were also met with uneasiness. For a while they worked with very few passengers. Eventually, the residents of Istanbul started to benefit from the innovations of the era by accepting both electricity and tram. A modern transportation opportunity was created with the trams, which were a fast, comfortable, cheap and reliable vehicle for Istanbul of that day. Therefore, more and more passengers were transported day by day. With the commissioning of the Silahtarağa electricity factory, the electric tram operation was expanded to the whole city. Meanwhile, the Ortaköy line was extended to Bebek.

28 In May 1912, with another contract added to the 1911 contract, the company accepted the construction of the new line 5. (See Annex: Contracts).

These:
Aksaray - Silivrikapısı
Eminönü - A new annex that passes in front of the Bahçekapısı Police Station and connects to the main line.
· Taksim - Dolmabahçe
Harbiye - Maçka
· Feriköy - Kasımpaşa - Azapkapısı
lines.

11 In January 1913 was cut off the electric current with the order of the government, 14 February 1914 was issued with a contract on the tram network current.

The start of World War I made the construction and expansion of lines difficult. I even stopped for a month transportation 8 months. The war years were often the period of the company's recession. 100 cars were ordered from Europe, but the number of 5 cars was broken, roads were distorted due to military transportation, material shortages, expensive and lack of personnel affected the financial situation of the company.

REPUBLIC PERIOD

Intuitive developments in the Republic of Dersaadet Tramway Company, as a result of the efforts of the period of Haydar Bey, the Government of Ankara, 17 has made an agreement in June 1923. Accordingly, a commission consisting of nafia, municipality and company representatives was established to meet every three months for the determination of tariffs, payment of wages of company personnel and so on. In addition, the company capital was doubled as needed, 1 January 1923 '1.25' 1 '1924' and 3.5 'XNUMX' XNUMX 'XNUMX' XNUMX 'as the allocation of% XNUMX'in all staff within six months was envisaged.
In return, the Company would increase its capital from 50 to 85,533, and raise its capital to 1,454,027.- Liras.
While the foreign capital and minority capital were rapidly replaced by Turkish capitalists, the Tram Company was able to maintain its status for a long time, until the beginning of the 2 World War.

In 1923, the company's general outlook was: 12 on line 210 car (141 motris, 69 trailer) was serving. 1699 staff at the company; The average 210 car expedition on the day, 10.4 million km per year. 55.5 million pounds, 2.3 million pounds of revenue were generated, 1.9 million pounds were spent and 413 thousand pounds (2) was provided. Km. 0.784 million kWa per year via 6.5 kWa was used in passenger transportation.

Dersaadet Tramway Company has made a new contract with the Ankara Government on 21 July 1926. According to this contract;
· Tram lines will be opened to other parts of the city,
· Production of 7.5 meter wide section of new lines, 10 meter wide section of new lines and 15 meter wide sections of old lines will be continuously maintained and repaired by the Company,
· For the expropriation of new lines, 250,000.- TL to the Company Municipality. The municipality will provide, but only in the 100,000.- TL, 10 annually, annually 10,000.- TL. will pay over,
· In order to increase the number of vehicles in the city, the 4 bus would be run as a trial, provided that the privilege was not continuous.
27 The company's capital was increased to 1926 million Swiss francs with a new additional contract on 27 on July 8. With this contract, the new tram lines of Dersaadet Tramway Company will be listed as follows:

First Degree Lines

· Unkapanı - Şehzadebaşı
Unkapanı - Eyüp
Fatih - Edirnekapısı

Second Degree Lines

· Azapkapısı (Side of Karaköy) -
· Kasimpasa Surp Agop (Taksim side)
· Taksim - Dolmabahçe
· Eminönü-Sultanhamamı-Unkapanı

Discretionary Lines (Company left)

Aksaray - Silivrikapısı
Maçka - Beşiktaş
Şehzadebaşı - Yenikapı
Kasımpaşa - Sütlüce
· Continue to Bebek from Bosphorus
· Kasımpaşa - Yenişehir - Feriköy

The company has not fulfilled its commitment to open the line with various excuses, raised more money for the works it did as a result of the contract and did not start despite the 8 year. By omitting the date order, the contract is not made by the company; The 1923 contract was revoked by the Ministry of Public Works and the 8 was withdrawn from the public throughout the year for the construction and expropriation of the 1 million 700 thousand TL İstanbul streets.

TRAMVAY AT THE ANATOLIAN SIDE

The first works on the operation of the tram in the Asian side of Istanbul were launched in 1927. First, however, the Üsküdar-Bağlarbaşı X Kısıklı line was put into service at 1928. A year later, Bağlarbaşı-Haydarpaşa and Üsküdar-Haydarpaşa lines; After the business profit, Bostancı, Moda, Feneryolu lines were opened. The Anatolian side of the business with the permission of the Municipality of Üsküdar and Havalisi Halk Tramvaylar TAŞ. It undertook. The Üsküdar and Havalisi Trams Company was formed with the initiative of the Foundation and the participation of the people of the environment. Later, Istanbul Municipality acquired the shares of the Foundations Administration and acquired the company's 90.
On July 2, 1928, the right to operate the tram in the area up to Üsküdar, Kadıköy and Beykoz and Anadolu Feneri was given to Üsküdar and Havalisi Public Trams Company with the agreement signed between Nafia Deputy Recep and Istanbul Şehremini Hamit Beyefendiler. According to the contract made:
The concession network will cover the area between Üsküdar - Kadıköy internal and external and Beykoz and Anadolu Fener.
· The city received this privilege Üsküdar-Kısıklı-Alemdağ'ı Halk Tramvayları TAŞ. ' what will be transferred.
· Üsküdar - Haydarpaşa; Karacaahmet - Bağlarbaşı; Haydarpasa - Kadikoy; Kadıköy - Kızıltoprak - Feneryolu; Kadıköy - Moda lines will be made compulsorily within 5 years from the signing date of the contract.
· Apart from these lines; Kadıköy-Gazhane; Feneryolu - Fenerbahçe; Feneryolu - Bostancı; Uskudar - Beykoz; Kadıköy - Acıbadem - K.Çamlıca; Gazhane- Merdivenköyü; Merdivenköyü - Erenköyü - Caddebostan; Bostancı - İçerenköyü; Beykoz - Anatolian lighthouse; Merdivenköyü - Sıraselviler - Libade - Kısıklı connection line,
can be done voluntarily.
8 June 1928 on the Anatolian coast Friday morning Üsküdar-Bağlarbaşı-Kisik line was opened to the operation was mentioned above. However, because of the narrow line and inefficient condition, the operating company is in a difficult position. In the following year (1929), Bağlarbaşı and Haydarpaşa lines were completed and put into service.
While the company carries out the enlargement of the network, Üsküdar - Haydarpaşa (Line no: 10); He ordered the materials of Bağlarbaşı - Karacaahmet lines.
These two lines were put into operation on 13 July 1929 and the length of the tram network had found 10.5 km.
When it was understood that the narrow and inefficient condition of the 4.5 km Üsküdar - Kısıklı line could not survive, the network was improved. According to this;
The Üsküdar - Haydarpaşa - Kadıköy line had to be built and operated. However, the tram lines belonging to Üsküdar - Kadıköy internal and external were not given concession.
According to the agreement signed by Emin Ali Beyfendiler, Chairman of the Board of Directors of İstanbul Şehremini Muhiddin and on behalf of the Company, on the date of 15 March 1929;
· Üsküdar - Kısıklı - Alemdağı Halk Tramvayları TAŞ. ', In accordance with the provisions of the contracts dated 31 August 1927 between the city and Evkaf and the installation of the tram, and from Evkaf. has been transferred to the Company on June 492.970, 8, when it actually started to work.
· 1928.-TL has committed to provide 100.000.-TL until 1933 every year since 500.000.
· Company; prior to the establishment of the company, 16.500.-TL, including 150,000.-TL, which the city paid the head of the house to make the line work, has agreed to give shares to the city every year with its 100.000.-TL account with the 500.000.-TL account.
TRAMWAY NETWORK IS GROWING
While the Fatih-Edirnekapı line was put into operation on the Istanbul side in 1929, the Bağlarbaşı and Haydarpaşa lines were completed and put into service on the Anatolian side in the same year. After the company canceled the first two lines, the tram lines were extended to Moda, Fenerbahçe, Bostancı and Hasanpaşa in the following years. In the beginning, there was no such thing as a stop on the Anatolian Side either. ZamIn the meantime, as a result of the increase in mansions and mansions, some points were chosen as stops. The tram cars of Üsküdar and Havalisi Public Trams Company were different from the Istanbul Side. The doors were sliding and in the middle. Üsküdar trams were coming into service from the warehouse in Bağlarbaşı where the İETT Workshop is located today.
AFTER 1930
While these developments continued on the Anatolian side, Tramway Company was also operating on the Istanbul coast. 170 from the 120 tram of the Şişli depot every day, 70 from the 50 tram of the Beşiktaş store, and the 80 from the 60 tramway of the Aksaray store were on service.
The total line length of this tram company in the 30s is 34 km. It was around, there were 320 trams. In the same period, on the Anatolian side, 4 trams were running on Üsküdar-Kısıklı, Üsküdar-Bağlarbaşı-Haydarpaşa-Üsküdar-Doğancılar-Haydarpaşa and Bağlarbaşı-Haydar-pasha lines, and 24 of the 16 trams were in service. Total line length is 10.7 km. I y.
Text Box: Republic of the proclamation 10. Certain ceremonies were to be held in Istanbul as in the whole country due to the year. 29 A week before October, President Atatürk's order is forwarded to Istanbul Tram Company. 29 October 1933 On Sunday, all trams and buses of Istanbul will be serviced. This order was fulfilled as a result of the conscious and disciplined work of the workers in the warehouse. On that day, all the trams in the workshop were repaired. Thus, in the history of Istanbul Public Transport, there has been a situation that cannot be easily realized and 320 bus which is in the warehouses and 4 buses have been given to the service of the Istanbulites. Presumably the service with the capacity of% 100 was realized for the first time in Istanbul among the world public transportation companies. From the memories of Şişli Warehouse Manager Hilmi YAMAN (1933)
In the 1930, the Istanbul Tram Company

The 22 line include:

Sisli-Tunnel
Fatih-Harbiye
Taksim Sirkeci
Macka-Beyazit
Macka-Eminönü
Sisli Sirkeci
Taksim, Aksaray
Liberation-Beyazit
Liberation-Eminönü
Baby-Eminönü
Ortakoy Aksaray
Topkapı-Sirkeci
Sirkeci-Yedikule
Fatih-Besiktas
Edirnekapı-Sirkeci
Liberation-Tunnel
Macka-Tunnel
Besiktas-Karakoy
Fatih Sirkeci
War-Sirkeci
Taksim-Beyazit
Taksim Fatih
Ortakoy-Fatih
Topkapı-Beyazit
Yedikule-Beyazit
Ortakoy-Eminönü

Bağlarbaşı-Karacaahmet-Haydarpaşa line on the Anatolian Side was established in 1930 in the place of Üsküdar-Bağlarbaşı-Haydarpaşa and Üsküdar-Doğancılar-Karacaahmet lines. After the construction of the tram services, buses from the truck were frequently seen on the tram network and the Üsküdar network of 1550 meters was converted into double lines.
While the centers were built in order to provide electricity from the city more economically than the old diesel engines, in addition to the 150,000. However, the debt that the company agreed to pay to foundations could not be paid due to financial difficulties.
30 On June 1931 According to the principles of the agreement signed between the Municipality of Istanbul and Necmeddin Sahir Beyefendi and the Director of Evkaf General Manager Rüştü Beyefendi on behalf of the Company, the General Directorate of Foundations of Evkaf General Directorate;
· Transfer of land owned by the Municipality of Istanbul by 9 1925 31 1927 15 dated March 1929 and transfer to the Company by XNUMX dated March XNUMX and transfer of land and buildings, tools, installations, factories and garages to the Company.
· Obligation to remove the amount of 468,220.-Lira 250.000.-Lira which is the amount of 5.-Lira from the Company's shares in the amount of 50.000.-Lira.

· The 22 issued by the Turkish Grand National Assembly was approved by June 1931 and 1831. Also;
· The municipality will pay 468.220.-TL for the rest of 218.220.-TL from the beginning of 1931 fiscal year to the end of 1942 as of June.
· The company; He will accept mortgages for real estate in return for his evkaf.
Thus, the tram operating privilege is Üsküdar - Kadıköy and its airport Halk Tramvayları TAŞ. what has been given.

As we approached the end of the 1930s, the process of liquidation of the Dersaadet Tramway Company, which is connected to the same center as the electricity company, was entered on the Istanbul coast. In 1938, the last year of operation of the company, as a result of public transportation with 177 tram, including 83 motris and 260 trailers; 15,356,364 km. The 73,039,303.-TL of the revenue collected was used at the cost of the 2,385,129 passenger transported by trip and 27,821.- TL. profit was obtained. In trams, 12,909,840 Kwh electrical energy is consumed in exchange for this service.
Towards the end of the 1930, the efficiency of the Dersaadet Tramway Company began to decline. The provisions of his agreement in 1926 had not been fulfilled for a long time. In the end, the Ministry of Nafia annulled the 1926 treaty and announced that the conditions of 1923 are valid (as mentioned above). 1,700,000.- TL was withdrawn from the company for the construction of the streets of Istanbul (see Appendix: The Law on Allocation of the money received from the Istanbul Tram Company for the Reconstruction of the City of Istanbul, 17 January 1938). A purely arbitrary policy was intended to hold only the operating rights for a long time. Upon the determination of this situation by the Turkish Government, works were initiated for the liquidation of the Tram Company together with the Electricity Company.
1938 motto and 177 trailer tramway were serviced daily in the last year of operation at the 83. 980,000 voyages were made with these services annually. The energy he spent was finding 12,909,804 Kwh. 2,412,949.- TL. ' 2,385,128.- TL. and the company has made a profit of 27,821.- TL. These numbers show that there has not been any significant change in the profile of Istanbul (economic and demographic) for 15 years.
A new contract was signed between Ankara Government and Istanbul Tram Company. All facilities were purchased from 1 January 1939 and were delivered to İstanbul Municipality. The first reconstruction movement in Istanbul went parallel with the confiscation of the Tram. Because the government (Inonu Government) hoped to provide some of the necessary resources for reconstruction from the tram operation it would nationalize.
As a result of this purchase, the company would pay 13 TL for 1,560,000 per year. The business had first been to the government. Then (after 6 month) 12 June 1939 date and 3642 with the date of the transfer of the tram business became definite, established by the Law No. 3645 Istanbul Electric Tramway and Tunnel Operations General Directorate took the role of the Municipality for this task.

Trams in battle

Towards the end of 1939 where IETT was founded, II. The start of World War II,
Istanbul has caused problems in urban transportation. Except for the tunnel, almost the only means of transportation was tram. The long duration of the war, the lack of gasoline and tires required for the wheeled vehicles, increased the load on the trolleys by a further increase. Trams, bandages, rail, scissors, copper wire, etc. In spite of their material problems, they continued their services successfully. The trolley was hardly affected by the electricity and the war and fuel shortages. II. While all the negative aspects of World War II were reflected in every section of life, the tram was the only exception. We cannot pass an interesting incident here. During the war years, the trams also m blacked out Savaş. The round glass of the two bulbs in front of the tram, the rectangular small glass at the edge of the ceiling was painted with dark blue paint. The large windows were closing the curtains. In addition, the bulb that illuminated the sign also changed color. This was the only change that the war brought to the trams in Istanbul.
The trams suited to blackout worked like this until the end of the war. Although the passenger found this practice strange at first zamgot used to it. Those who saw the blue light in front of the tram from afar were making a move towards the road, saying "Coming". The sign was not read, but it was not a problem.

Text Box: LAW ON THE ESTABLISHMENT OF XETUM 3645 ARTICLE 2: The administrations transferred to the Istanbul Municipality by this Law shall be managed by the General Directorate under the name of T Istanbul General Directorate of Electricity, Tramway and Tunnel Operations la and the Head of Istanbul Municipality. ARTICLE 3: The duties of the Directorate of General Affairs: a. The interests that have been transferred to it shall be resigned and executed. b to regulate, repair, amend and extend the electrical installation and electric tramway network and tunnel installation in accordance with the needs of the Istanbul Rumelia and Anatolian sides and the islands in order to provide electricity power, and to carry out real estate, expropriation and endowment activities in all operations and undertakings. If there is a need to find the trolleybus and bus services to create and reinforce the issue is to reinforce.

Since spare parts were not available, some of the cars, trucks and buses were towed into the garages. There were shortages of urban public transportation provided by a small number of buses. Car owners were faced with the problem of finding replacement parts other than fuel. However, the trams were outside these problems. The trolleys that appeared to be very rare. After the maintenance of the warehouse, they continued their flights for a long time. Spare parts for trams were less than buses or cars. On the other hand, since most of the models were the same, they had the possibility to transfer material to each other. In fact, apart from the parts in the electric motor, it was possible to produce the others in the workshops in Istanbul. IETT's Şişli Warehouse was very successful in this regard.
However, since the post-war Europe did not produce spare parts after the 1946, the operation of the tramway started. Most of the trolley cars were 33-age, they were inadequate for the increasing urban population, the rails were worn out. The decision to reduce tram speeds was implemented in order to prevent the rails from becoming more worn. In the meantime, the press had increased the criticism. Among these numerous examples, we can give the following 2 example:
Even as they run down the narrow street in the evening,
Trams on the road are like turtles.
Everywhere there is his saga,
Yesterday we came to the tomb in ten minutes from Beyazit.
*
… Tram Company is the people of Istanbul
is not yet accepted. Us
lumber, sack, sawdust or gas crate,
thinks that it is an unassigned, emotionless and inanimate item…
Server Bedi (Peyami Safa)

Finally the 30 km from America and Belgium. The rails were replaced, bringing the rail up. In the 1946-1947 years, a project was prepared for the removal of the tunnel operation and for the trams to land in Karaköy from the tunnel. According to the project, it was envisaged that the buildings in the Karaköy exit of the tunnel would be demolished to the sea. This meant a very high cost, so the project was abandoned.

1939 by 258 tram per day, 15.3 million km per year. As 78.4 million passengers are transported, the 1950 tram goes out every day in 267 and 14.1 million miles per year. 97.5 million passengers were transported. These figures had fallen below 1939 in the war years.

A closer look at some tram lines in the 1950 shows that there are always two wagons on the tram line going to Topkapı. The attractive motive in front is sometimes red and sometimes green. Red would be the first, green second-position tram. Ticket prices were different. The first-class car seats were made of leather and soft. In the second position the seats were full and hard. The tram line, which was double in all parts of the city, was transformed into a single line on the present day in this street. Because the street width was not suitable for laying the tram line.

Old Istanbul houses with wood, bay windows were being inserted into the tram line in a part of the road. Five ten bulbs on the top of a pole beside the stop were either on or off, indicating whether or not a tram was coming. Aksaray came from the station before moving from the patrol to look at these lamps. If there was a tram arriving by the invisible, he would wait for his arrival. In older years, large and large mirrors were used instead of lamps. Topkapi finish tram lines in Pazartekke, the end of the expedition was the point indicating. Here, the ticket-taker would pick up the ticket box and start to unscrew the mirror on the right-hand side of the door on the right-hand side of the gate. When he removed the mirror that passengers control the passengers at the stops, he went to the back, and he had screwed up the mirror on the right side of the divan area. This was a little bit of preparation next time. Another task of the ticket-taker was to turn the seats into the direction of the tram. Seats were not fixed.

Beyazıt Square has a special place in the history of the trams. It was where some of the trams running in various districts of Istanbul passed. The trams around the magnificent pool on the square gave a separate view here.

There was no more than the walls for the trams. In those years, the inner city boundary of Istanbul started from Ayvansaray and the city walls from Edirnekapı, Topkapı, Mevlanakapı to Yedikule were drawn. Beyond the city walls was urban. It would be very secluded.

The city's Beyoğlu side of the trams adorned. From Beyazıt, from Sirkeci to Maçka, from Aksaray, from Fatih to Harbiye, from Tunnel to Şişli, from Sirkeci to Mecidiyeköy, from Eminönü to Kurtuluş was running a tram. The tram on these routes passed through Istiklal Street, inside the entertainment center of Istanbul, Beyoglu. After passing around Taksim Square in the Harbiye, Maçka, Kurtuluş, Şişli and Mecidiyeköy. Mecidiyeköy was the last stop of the trams in Beyoğlu. Trams stopped just behind the Ali Sami Yen Stadium in front of the IETT Department of Vehicles, which was demolished today. More and more gardens, mulberry gardens were located.

An important historical event in which the trams of Beyoğlu District have taken part in and witnessed are events of 6-7 September. Top cloths of Beyoğlu stores, which were looted, were attached to the back of the trams and the trams did not work until the center was cleared. Today, the old homeland of the Nostalgic Tram, which operates in Beyoglu, excitedly describing the images they witnessed and witnessed in those days.
The only line running to the Bosphorus was the Eminonu-Bebek line. Trams of this line were different from the others. The three-wagon tram would not work in any district of Istanbul. However, between Eminönü-Bebek, three trams made trams. This is because; The road from Eminönü to Bebek was described as being flat, no slopes, or a multitude of passengers.

Besiktas-Ortaköy, the fastest way to go trams. Trams passing ”like wind lar from the ruins of Çırağan Palace stopped at the honor stadium. This posture would usually be match days. The next section of the line from Ortakoy trams. In Arnavutköy, it stretches parallel to the sea. Here, sometimes, a race between trams and city-line ferries would begin. The bell bell of the tram, the whistle's whistle were the most obvious signs of the short race. But the winner of the race was unclear. In some parts of the road between the sea and the tram line, the buildings enter, sometimes the ferry to the pier or change the course of the race, the finish of the race was unknown. The waves of baby trams would wet the waves exploding on land. Cape Cape was known as a place that shook their homeland in the winter. Parents who worked in the baby line were affected by the wind blowing from the Bosphorus while passing through Akıntı Burnu and Arnavutköy. According to the patriarchs, three coldest places in Istanbul in winter; Arnavutköy was on the bridge and Saraçhanebaşıydı. For this reason, they wanted to pass very fast.
If we take a brief look at the Anatolian Side trams, we will see that the tram models and colors are different. Yellow, purple, blue, green painted trams operated in Kadıköy. They were very different from the trams running in other parts of the city. This difference was revealed everywhere, from the doors to the seats. The ride was more comfortable. The shakes were small.
The center of the trams on the Anatolian Side was Kadıköy. All lines would start from here. The first stops of the trams lined along the beach were under the trees at the exit of the pier. Those going to Moda, Fenerbahçe, Bostancı, Üsküdar, Kısıklı and Haydarpaşa would wait at this stop. The first tram line removed was the Kadıköy-Moda line. The tram line from Altıyol to Moda was dismantled.
Kalamış, Fenerbahçe, Göztepe, Erenköyü, Caddebostanı, Suadiye and Bostancı were the summer districts of Istanbul. The trams departing from Kadıköy used to get off Altıyol and cross the Kurbağalıdere Bridge. After passing in front of Fenerbahçe Stadium, they would reach Kızıltoprak stop. A little further from Kızıltoprak was another station called Depo. The tram line was divided into two here. While the Bostancı trams were going towards, Fenerbahçe trams would turn to Kalamış Caddesi.

The tram line number 4 operated to Bostancı. The front wagon of the Kadıköy-Bostancı tram, which consists of two wagons, would be the first and the second position. Trams passed through Bağdat Street. The line was laid on both sides of the road and other vehicles would come and go from the middle. Bostancı, following the Kızıltoprak-Göztepe-Suadiye road, would descend from the slope after passing the tram over the train bridge. The end of the slope was Bostancı Square. The tram, curving in front of the street leading to the pier, would come to the stop by passing the historical fountain.
Transportation between Kadıköy and Üsküdar was also provided by tram. Number 12 would work on this line. He would depart from Kadıköy, from Çayırbaşı to Selimiye, then leave the Karacaahmet cemetery behind and come to Tunusbağı. Then he would return from Ahmediye and go to Üsküdar. Ticketers "Will anyone get off at Karacaahmet?" his calling caused laughter.

The short tram used to leave the point in Selimiye. He took it to Bağlarbaşı after passing through the cemeteries. The last stop was Kısıklı. Those who came to Camlica Hill for a picnic used this line. Another line was the Kadıköy-Hasanpaşa line. He would return from Gazhane, which is the gas distribution facility.

The tram, curving in front of the street leading to the pier, passed by the historical fountain and came to the stop. The stop was at the end of the road that descended from Altıntepe, passed under the train bridge and joined Bostancı. For a new journey, the tram from Bostancı to Kadıköy used to proceed on the other side of the road this time.

LETTERS AFTER 1950

By the end of the 40s, the "motor vehicle and asphalt" duo had taken the throne of the kingdom. Ray and the wagon were considered 'tapon, outdated and outdated'. Therefore, also in Turkey in 1947, first came to Nihat Erim, Ministry of Public Works 'highway' policy; approved by its import and staff zamthe moment, the end of this decision would touch the trams of Istanbul.

As a matter of fact, as in the history of Turkey, the beginning of 1950 was the beginning of a new era in the history of public transport. With the transition to the multi-party system, Istanbul would take its share of the changes in the central government. Great zoning movements and expropriations were initiated in the city. The buildings were being demolished, the streets were being widened, the areas were opening. On the other hand, the number of motor vehicles increased rapidly. A new vehicle in the streets of Istanbul, the dolmuş had shown the supply. In contrast to the world, the automobile was not a means of personal transport, but the stop turned into a kind of transportation. Large American cars, which were sold illegally from Belgium by triptych, reinforced the dependence of our country on foreign sources in terms of spare parts and fuel, but the trams, which were native to almost everything, were thoroughly discredited, they were constantly criticized.

On the other hand, the assembly industry establishments are being erected in Istanbul, and the factories of the workshop are growing rapidly, the migrant neighborhoods flowing like floods from Anatolia and the Balkans and the slums in the slums end up like mushrooms and Istanbul is growing rapidly.

It is interesting to note that the tramway was not thought to be included on the roads such as the runway opened with the new (second) zoning movement, and the tram was intentionally erased from the urban scene. As mentioned, the public air was also not in favor of trams.

As a result of all these, the Maçka-Tunnel-Tram line was removed on August 1, 1953. Then, Taksim-Eminönü, Kadıköy-Moda and Bostancı lines were coming. Trams were constantly hurting, buses were making a profit. In this case, the tram operation should be abolished because the number of vehicles is low, the traffic is disrupted, the wagons are worn out, the passengers are reduced, etc., its policy has become widespread.

It was understood that the trams would be lifted, but zamthe moment was not clear. In the meantime, on the Anatolian Side, the tram rails on the road were buried in order to prevent the vehicles of Üsküdar and Havalisi People's Tramways Company from disrupting other traffic. However, the economic situation of the company was shaken. He could not perform his services. In the General Assembly of the company held on 11 November 1954, a decision to dissolve and liquidate was taken and the transfer of the business to Istanbul Municipality was requested. In the articles published in the press, the Municipality's failure to take over this company was criticized. Finally, the decision of the Municipal Council to give the Anatolian Side tram operation to IETT from April 1, 1955, made the residents of the Anatolian Side happy.

A short zamThis organization was also affiliated to the IETT General Directorate after the moment. 56 tram lines, now fully operated by IETT in Istanbul, were reduced to 1960 lines in 16. In 1950, against 7.4 million TL of income of the enterprise, 10 million TL of expenditure was realized as 1960 million TL against an income of 9.8 million TL in 23.7. As can be seen, the budget deficit, which was approximately 1950 million TL in the 3s, exceeded 1960 million TL in the 10s. Also in 1951, with 262 trams running daily, 13.6 million km per year. while carrying 97.8 million passengers annually, in 1961, 82 million km per year with 4.2 trams. and 26.5 million passengers were carried
This is the end of the electric tram on the Istanbul coast after a full 90 year. The final preparations were made for the commissioning of the trolleybuses. And by a telephone order, the trams will be on their last expedition on the 12 August 1961.
On the last day, all the wagons were equipped with lush green taffelan and laurel branches. Some of them had a "last time" sign in front of the patrol place and some of them were hung with cloth rags all over their windows, "Goodbye, dear passengers!" who wrote ... The ornaments of the wagons were ex-veteran and loyal personnel. There was no decision taken by the Administration for this; the master vatmans were Çilekes ticketers.

”ELVEDA, DEAR PASSENGERS!“

The author of the book called Tram in Istanbul, Celik Gulersoy, who is the witness of the incident and one of the most important sources of this book, says his book with a painful expression:

"Was it, the trams, the outgoing, about half of our life?"
Aksaray played an important role in the lifting of the tram that Istanbulites loved and loved. Istanbul's trams were not considered much to discredit. Aksaray was the first neighborhood in Istanbul where the tram was lifted, or had its misfortune. The only reason for this was that the construction move in Istanbul was started from Aksaray.

According to officials, a tram to Istanbul was unnecessary. It didn't do anything, and it was hampering traffic. The days when the city had largely provided public transport and tied the city from one end to the other. There was no place for tram in Istanbul, which was ”reforming da with tu reconstruction movement“. The tram, which was the den favorite Yıl of Istanbul for many years, fell from the eye. The benefits of services, almost forgotten, were pushed aside. In fact, there was a lot of people who didn't fit the tram in Istanbul. On the wide streets, the historic tram was even seen as the ı primitive Geniş mark. Instead, more modern vehicles were needed, carrying more passengers. This vehicle has never worked in Istanbul until now.

No investigation, no research, facilities modernization and facilities were not mobilized. If it is well studied, the removal of the tramway operation may be seen at the source of today's transportation problems in Istanbul. Istanbul Side trams were loaded onto barges and moved to the Anatolian side of the city. In the 1961, tram lines running on the Asian side are:
IETT Tramway Company 1965 12.9 2.8 million passengers in the year, 10 million TL. income, XNUMX million TL. ' has realized the expense. Another point that should not be mentioned here is that the fleet numbers of the trams of Istanbul had some characteristics.

For example; single fleet numbered trams II. Location, double fleet number one trolley vehicles was I. Place. From 1914 to 1966, 350 tram was served in Istanbul and Anatolian side. The breakdown and technical specifications of these vehicles are given below.
21 of the AEG model trams were with air brake and automatic catch. Later, their chassis was extended in IETT workshops and more passengers were provided. Metin Duru, one of the İETT engineers, produced and operated a new generation of these trams in Şişli Ateliers with local materials and craftsmanship in 1954. In addition, the 6 tramway engine was replaced by a Parkinson trolleybus engine. These were tested on the road to Kuruçeşme. With a Landrover jeep the tram was brought to the nose and activated at the same time. While the tram is finally on its way, jipin km. ' si was showing 60 per hour. However, there were tremendous tremors in the tram. This issue was fixed by adjusting the resistors later.

TH model trolleys were brought to the 19 units and were made to take double trailers. These were given to Beşiktaş depot.
Siemens brand trams were used by Üsküdar and Havalisi Halk Trams Company on the Anatolian Side. The doors were in the middle and bolt. There were also types used as trailers.

SPECIFICATIONS
MODEL: CPN
MOTOR: Siemens 50 Kw power, 550 volt permanent drafter Two electric motors
SPEED: 60 km / h
CAPACITY: 34 passenger, 12 seating / 22 standing
PRODUCTION PLACE: F. Germany
INTRODUCTION TO SERVICE: 10.1.1914
MODEL: BERGMAN
MOTOR: BERGMAN 50 Kw in the feed, 550 volt two electric motors
SPEED: 60 km / h
CAPACITY: 37 passenger, 12 seating / 25 standing
PRODUCTION PLACE: F. Germany
INTRODUCTION TO SERVICE: 1914
MODEL: AEG
MOTOR: AEG 45 Kw power, 550 volt permanent drafter Two electric motors
SPEED: 60 km / i
CAPACITY: 45 passenger, 12 seating / 33 standing
PRODUCTION PLACE: F. Germany
INTRODUCTION TO SERVICE: 1926
MODEL: TH
MOTO: Two electric motors with Thomson 65 Kw power, 600 volt permanent
SPEED: 60 kw / h
CAPACITY: 34 passenger, 12 seating / 22 standing
PRODUCTION PLACE: F. Germany
INTRODUCTION TO SERVICE: 9.1.1928
MODEL: Siemens
MOTOR: Siemens 50 Kw power, 550 volt permanent draft
SPEED: 50 km / h
CAPACITY: 42 passenger, 22 seating / 20 standing
PRODUCTION PLACE: F. Germany
INTRODUCTION TO SERVICE: 1934

FIRST GREVE PARTICIPANTS

We want to end our history of the tram by highlighting several historical events and features:
· Implementation of the first strike in the history of the Republic of Turkey was done by workers in Istanbul Tram Company 1928. This strike was attended by 110 tram countrymen and ticketmaker. Therefore, in addition to being the first transportation company, the tram is also the first strike operation.
· An interesting event is told in the memories of a homeland. One of the citizens, came to the Besiktas tram depot, in the hands of the paper written in the trams, he bought them and wants to take to his village says. It's been hard to convince the guy. At the end the work is enlightened. Sülün Osman, the famous pickpocketer of those days, sold the trams to the buggy. The document on his hand shows that he paid 5,000 TL for two trams.
· Red and green colored trams offered comfort option by applying price difference to passengers on the same lines.
· On Saturday and Sunday there were free tram services for military-officers who could not ride civilians.
· In 40 in Istanbul, the tramway operation was valid for 2 hours.
· On the tram routes with major slopes such as Fatih-Harbiye, a single wagon (motris) was usually employed.
· During the summer months, trams were run on every side and more shaky than the other trams. These people were called ”Tango Trailer Bunlar.
· Istanbul's well-known, popular figures were identified with trams and some tram lines. According to Mehmet Çobanoğlu, who was the oldest citizen, Hüseyin Pehlivan from Tekirdağ and İsmail Dümbüllü were the first to come to mind when the Yedikule-Bahçekapı tram line was mentioned.
· Another image to be remembered by trams; while hanging to make a free trip to the back of the trams or picking up a single ticket inside, grabbing the ticket from the hand and going crazy. The two-trailer arrays were unforgettable parts of the summer wagons trams. It was a passion for the kids to jump on the tram or jump off the tram. Not knowing this job was seen as a big deficiency among children, and at the first opportunity, his friends would teach that boy to jump into the tram. The masters of this work would brag that la I jump off the tram when I go with 9 Bu. I 9 ği was the last point where the arm in front of the homeland could be turned. It was a sign of the tram's top speed. The front and the back of the trams were written with the text ama Jump is forbidden and dangerous mak, but it could not be said to have much effect. This event has always continued, even though those who fell underneath the tram fell off the wheels, were injured and died.
· Electric trams were safe vehicles, resulting in fewer accidents than riding trams. The main cause of the accident was excessive speed. The average speed of the trams was 5 in bends and crowded places, and 20-25 km / h in open and straight roads. These speeds were driving downhill, causing drizzling in the drizzle of rain and cornering, leaving the cars out of the way. Another cause of accidents was brake errors. Especially II. Worn brakes had a significant role in the shortage of materials after World War II. In addition, the use of intact brakes without technical rules was also important. Trams; electromagnetic, rheostatic, direct, and handbrake. 'Anger' was an inevitable consequence of material aging or misuse. Another cause of the accident was the weather. In any case that moisturized the rails, the internal device that provides continuous sand spillage was operated. He was in charge of getting out of the dirt, or the failure of the pipes to pour the sand onto the tracks. Again, it should be noted, however, that the trams according to today's cars were extremely safe means of travel.
ŞİŞHANE FACİASI There have been various types of accidents on different dates in Istanbul Tramways. However, there are one of these accidents; Istanbulites are remembered by advanced ages. This accident, known as Şişhane Disaster, occurred on the date of 26 February 1936. On the way to Harbiye, the 122 fleet numbered tram under Vatman Honorary management, on the way to Şişli, got braked and stopped quickly, slamming down an apartment building. The passengers were stacked on top of each other. As a result of crashing and crushing, 6 has lost its lives. The tram 122 was also damaged. After this trolley accident, some measures were taken in urban transportation. Accordingly, it was decided not to take more than the 28 passengers on the trams. However, this restriction was not implemented as soon as the effect of the accident was eliminated. In the meantime, the tram number 122 was repaired in the carpenter's shop in the Şişli store. One finger in one hand was reconstructed by a master named Aristidi. However, all officials were reluctant to issue the tram again. Because the 122 filou would not get on the tram. Finally the fleet number of the tram was changed to 180. And so the expedition. He worked for many years. No one could understand that this tram was a tram that led to the Şişhane Disaster and continued its safety.
· On the days when it was snowing, it was necessary to clean the scissors on the lines continuously. If it wasn't cleaned, the snow would turn into ice and prevent the scissor from opening and closing. Therefore, the scissors in certain parts of the lines are always on snowy days.
· IETT's teams served. They took the snow and ice from the scissors with the long iron in their hand, and then cleaned them with small brooms. There was no way of avoiding the working conditions in power conditions by pretending that the weather was rainy or cold. Everyone from his homeland to his ticketmaker, his plankone worker, and the worker who opened the roads, would have the excitement of doing the job. For three and five hours after the rain, Istanbul, snow and rain against the flag of the delivery would not attract.1

AND THE END…

In 1966, when the tramway operation was terminated on the Anatolian side, the vehicles were taken to the tram depot in Kuşdili and they were kept there for a long time. They would be sold if the customer came out. However, according to reports in the newspapers, the trams were neither the area nor the sellers. The snow was rotting in the rain. A part of the trams were given to the scrap dealer. Some of them have detachable seats for sale.
IETT who thought that the summer cinema operators would get them, declared ads to newspapers by saying düşün chair for sale Yazlık. But nobody cared.
Even though they were used on the beach, or were destroyed under a sledgehammer, there were still trams. After more than 125 operable trams were kept waiting for days, Adil Tahtacı, President of IETT Vehicles Department at the time, made a suggestion to General Manager Saffet Gürtav and Mayor Fahri Atabey to evaluate a few of them. Tahtacı said, “Let's set up a vehicle museum. Let's put a few trams here. We will save them from oblivion ”, he said. The Mayor deemed this proposal of Adil Tahtacı, who removed the trams and established a trolleybus network instead. The work started immediately. The 15-20 wagons that were saved from being sent to the camp were overhauled, arranged as in the past, and the museum was opened. Eventually, the tram depot in Kadıköy Kuşdili became the IETT Vehicles Museum.

But a vehicle museum was seen a lot in Istanbul. Half of the building was given to Kadıköy Fire Brigade. There was no place for trams in the museum. Two trams, which were taken out of the museum in 1990, were renewed from door to engine, from window to seat and put on the journey. Two green "trailers", also taken from the museum, were mounted behind them. It is now working on the Tünel-Taksim line. They go back and forth between Taksim and Tünel as if they wanted to create the look of old Beyoğlu,

1 In March 1996, a museum-exhibition, which is mainly based on photography and a few parts from tram operation, was opened to visitors at the entrance of IETT Karaköy Headquarters.

NOSTALGIC APPLICATION

During the liquidation of the museum, some of the old tram cars and wagons were still operational, the local government's traffic-free pedestrian zone applications were brought to the agenda and the old Istanbulites were at the intersection of the trolley aspirations at some point. and carried out.

The Tunnel-Taksim tram, which was put into service on 29 December 1990 with its old colors and features, consists of two tow trucks and wagons. Until January 15, 1991 trips on these trams were made free of charge, after this date, a discounted ticket fee was applied. As of March 20, 1991, IETT discount bus tickets have been valid on the tram. The maximum speeds of trams operating with 600 Volt direct current are 40 km / h and their engine power is 2 x 51 HP. Each vehicle weighs 13 tons. The length of the line is 1,860 meters and the rail width is 1000 millimeters. It is a rail type groove used by trams with 80 mm2 catenary line wire section. Motris lengths are 8,5 meters and their widths are 2.2 meters.

The number of seats is 12 in Motris and 18 in trailers. It is still operated uninterruptedly and smoothly by the Tunnel Branch Directorate and remains a center of attraction for both Istanbul and tourists.

Source: zkirmizi.110mb.com

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